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OiJR semi-grammarless age — a period of conflict- 
ing opinions regarding the teaching of English in 
lower schools — ^has resulted in confusion of mind to 
many pupils, and in discouragement to many upper- 
class teachers. 

Because of the writer's firm conviction that the 
difficulties with the subject in disrepute are largely 
owing to wrong methods of presentation, an attempt 
is now made to approach it from a new angle. Two of 
the strongest factors in child-growth — ^love of play 
and a strong dramatic instinct — are used to assist in 
bringing life to what has usually seemed a **dead 
language,'' or, at best, a cordially disliked subject. 

The query of the anti-grammar group is always, 
* * Of what use to a fifth- or sixth-grade child is knowl- 
edge of a noun ? ' ' The pro-grammar adherents agree 
that unless such knowledge is made a part of the 
child 's experience in a vital, organic way, it is futile ; 
but they believe that, as preparation for more ad- 
vanced, critical study in later years, it is as essential 
to know early the fundamental structure of the Eng- 
lish tongue, as it is to know geographical nomencla- 
ture, or the simple elements of arithmetic. 

The use of games in teaching spelling and correct 
habits of oral speech has been proved of value ; it is 
the purpose of this book to apply similar methods to 



the study of grammar. Many of the lessons in this 
text-book have been used successfully in the fifth and 
sixth grades of the Hathaway-Brown School of 
Cleveland. The lesson on the noun was presented to 
a fourth-primary class. 

The writer has long been aware that word-games 
have intense interest to children during the age previ- 
ous td adolescence, when their alert senses and eager 
curiosity^ their active imaginations and retentive 
memories make acquisition of language a natural 
prociBss. It is then that the foundations for the later, 
more formal study of English grammar may be 
laid, while there are opportunities for the fre- 
quent and necessary drills that a crowded curriculum 
later prohibits. 

« Alter adolescence, interest in word-games and 
drills declines, though it is the period when the 
greater part of such work is attempted. When the 
children grow older, more difficult, more complex 
phases may be presented successfully, though much 
of what was formerly assigned to grammar-schools is 
now believed to lie within the provinces of high- 
SQtools and colleges. 

In the elementary work of the past, stress was 
first laid upon parsing, and later upon excessive 
analysis. The subject has usually been approached 
from an adult^s point of view, instead of inductively, 
synthetically, and from the standpoint of the child ^s 
interest and development. Unsatisfactory results are 
the direct outcome of such unscientific procedure. 

This first volume treats only of the parts of speech. 


the growth of the simple sentence, punctuation, and 
common errors in English. No attempt has been made 
to treat subdivisions of the subject, except where 
necessary to make clear the function of a part of 
speech. Grammatical terminology has been greatly 
simplified. Writers of text-books on grammar are 
likely to forget that much concrete material must be 
supplied to immature minds; for abstract grammar 
presents as serious difficulties to many children as do 
Greek and Sanskrit to older students. 

A second volume is to follow, treated in a method 
similar to that employed in this first book. 

The Author. 
August, 1920 



I. The Noun 11 

II. The Adjective 26 

III. The Pronoun 41 

IV. The Verb 56 

V. The Adverb. 74 

VI. The Preposition 89 

VII. The Conjunction 103 

VIII. The Interjection 113 

Summary 117 

IX. Review 119 

X. Errors in English 138 

XI. Punctuation Marks 150 



Dm you ever think how strange the world would 
seem if you could not talk, and if no one could talk 
to you? It is quite possible that you might make 
many of your wants known by means of gestures, and 
you might make yourself understood in some measure. 
You may find that out for yourself, if you will try 
some day to see how many things you can make a play- 
mate understand by using gestures only. 


But think of what you would miss if none of us 
could talk : the delightful stories that you have been 
told about children, animals, birds, bees, butterflies, 
and the wonderland of stars ; many pleasant games 
that you have played, and happy times that you have 
enjoyed with your family and friends. Do you think 
of anything else that you would miss ? 

Did you ever wonder how you learned to talk? 
Watch any baby whom you know and see what kind 
of words he uses first. You will probably find that 
they are the names of the people about him, 
which he learns by hearing them spoken: mamma, 
papa, baby, brother, sister, nurse, uncle, aunt, grand- 
father, grandmother. 

Because the baby loves animals, he learns their 
names, too : dog, cat, horse, pony, cow, sheep, chicken, 
robin. Do you think of other animals whose names 
he learns? 

Before he is very old, the baby knows the names 
of the parts of his body : head, eye, nose, mouth, chin, 

ear; hand, finger, thumb; hair, 
teeth, nails; back, shoulder, arm; 
leg, knee, foot, toe. 

Baby soon learns the names of 
the things he eats : milk, egg, soup, 
bread, butter, potato, apple, 
orange, ice-cream. He learns th6 
names of the things he uses at his meals, also : table, 
chair, spoon, mug, cup, saucer, bowl, plate, knife, 
fork, bib. 

He likes his bath and learas to say: tub, water, 
soap, sponge, waah-eloth, towel ; also, shirt, stockings, 
shoes, rompers, dress, coat, cap, mittens, leggings. 

He calls for his toys : rattle, ball, doll, lamb, kitten, 
Teddy-bear, blocks, picture-book, music-box, wagon, 
balloon. Do you think of other toys whose names 
he learns I 

As he likes to play out-of-doors, he learns the 
words yard, park, beach, woods, coxmtry, farm ; baby- 
earriage, street-ear, automobile, train, engine, boat; 
sand, shells, pebbles, stones, rocks; grass, flowers, 
leaves, trees ; sun, moon, stars. 

When the baby has grown to be as old as you are, 
he learns that his food, toys, garments, animal 
friends, the people and things that he sees, are called 
objects. He also learns that the names of these ob- 
jects belong to a great word-family called NOUNS. 



Game 1 

Would you like to play a number of noun games? 
Let us see who will win by naming tbe greatest num- 
ber of objects in the schoolroom; in a house; in 
a barn. 

What objects do you find in a garden I an orchard ? 
on a farm? in the woods? at the sea-shore? on 
city streets ? 

What is the name of every object called? 

Game 2 

Let us see who can write correctly the greatest 
munber of girls' names; of boys' names; the full 


names of the children in your class ; of grown people 
whom you know; of noted people about whom you 
have heard or read. What are the names of 
people called? Notice that such names begin with 
capital letters. 

Game 3 

Write lists of the cities, towns, and streets that 
you know; of the oceans, seas, gulfs, bays, lakes, 
rivers; of the countries. What are the names of 
places called? Notice that they, tooj begin with 

What are the inhabitants of England called? of 
France ? of Belgiimi ? of Italy ? of Japan ? of Canada ? 
of the United States? of other countries that you 
know ? These names that you have been giving also 
are called nouns and they, too, begin with capitals. 

Game 4 

Have you ever played the game **My Ship Has 
Come In?'' Let us play it now. Robert may say, 
**My ship has come in !'' and at the same time he may 
toss a paper ship to Emily. Emily may ask, *^With 
what is it loaded?'' Robert may reply, *^ Apples," 
or he may select the name of anything else beginning 
with the letter ^^a," such as almonds, apricots, 
apes, etc. 

Emily may toss the ship to Herbert ; Herbert, to 
Mary ; Mary, to William ; and so on, till each child in 
the class has thought of the name of some object 
beginning with ^^a." Then try ^^b," ^^c," ^^d," and 


the other letters of the alphabet. Play the game 
at home. 

Some day you may wish to play it in a more diflfi- 
CTilt way. You may reply that your ship is loaded with 

Apes from Africa 

beans from Boston 

cocoanuts from Cuba 

fruits from Florida, etc. 

Game 5 

Some objects have more than one name; as, baby, 
infant ; girl, maiden ; boy, youth, lad. 

Find words that may be used in place of those in 
the following lists : 

woods basement jacket 

blossom piazza gown 

brook cock bonnet 

earth steed clothes 

Think of other pairs of words. How might a 
game of partners be played ? Invent other games for 
your class to play. 

Game 6 

written exercises 

1. Write a letter to Santa Claus for a little child 
you know; notice carefully the names of the objects 
desired for Christmas. 

2. Write a letter to a friend about a Christmas 
that you once enjoyed; name the objects that you 
found in your stocking or on your Christmas tree. 

3. Write a fairy story ; underline the nouns used. 

4. Write the story of a journey that you once 
made ; underline the names of the places that you saw. 

5. Write the description of a boat, an engine, or 
an aeroplane ; name all the parts that you know. To 
what group of words do all the names in your descrip- 
tion belong ? 

6. Find the nouns in the following sentences about 
Indians. It will help you to decide what words are 
noims if you will ask yourself these questions : Is the 
word the name of something f Does it answer the 
question "who" or "whatf" 

Indians lived in America before white men came. 
They hunted in forests or on the plains. 
They made bows and arrows for killing animals 
and birds. 


They caught fish in streams and lakes. 

They made fish-hooks out of wood. 

They made canoes of bark to use on the water. 

They made snow-shoes to use in winter. 

The men were called braves. 

Each tribe had a chief. 

The women tilled the soil. 

They made baskets and blankets. 

They made bowls of clay. 

The mothers carried their little children on 
their backs. 

Indians wore clothes made of skins. 

Their shoes were called moccasins. 

They liked to wear beads and feathers. 

Their money was called ' ' wampum. ' ' 

They worshipped the ^* Great Spirit.'^; / 

They had a beautiful language and told wonder- 
ful stories. 

7. Find the nouns in the following story : 


In a forest of Alaska, there once lived a mother- 
bear and her little cub. One day a hunter killed 
the mother. 

He put her body on a rude sledge and brought it 
into the nearest town, so that he might sell her skin. 
He brought the little cub, also, and gave him to a 
good doctor, who called him ^^ Teddy,'' treated him 
very kindly, and taught him many tricks. 

The little fellow learned very readily. 


As Teddy was very yoxing, the wise doctor fed 
hiT" only milk — condensed milk, for there was not a 
cow in the town. The doctor would pour water into a 
half -filled can of condensed milk, stir it with a spoon, 
and let the cnb drink the mixture. 
This was great sport for the cub. 

As Teddy grew older, he would 
not wait for the water to be put into 
the can, but would snatch it up in his 
clumsy paws and greedily lick the 
sticky stufE from the top and sides. 
He had to work so hard to get it out 
that be would rock back and forth 
on his unsteady hind feet. One day 
he tipped it over on his little nose. 
The sticky milk spilled all over his 
shaggy fur. He immediately began to lick it off, 
and had no trouble till he tried to reach what was 
imder his chin. It was very amusing to see him turn 
himself almost inside out in his efforts to lose none 
of the sweet substance. 

One day a party of people from the United States 
visited the little town where Teddy lived. They 
brought with them another young bear called 
" Jiggy," because of his habit of prancing about as 
though he were dancing a jig. He was much larger 
than Teddy. 

Jiggy was very cross, because he had been teased 
by the sailors on the ship and had been quite seasick. 
He had been fed all sorts of indigestible things and 
was "as cross as a bear." 


When Jiggy saw Teddy, he rushed at the little 
bear with a growl. For a moment Teddy was much 
frightened; then he made a quick leap toward his 
enemy, boxed his ears, and ran like lightning toward 
a flag-pole, which he climbed. 

Jiggy growled fiercely and treed Teddy until the 
little bear thought, * ^ I 'm tired of this ; I know what 
I '11 do. ' ' He came slowly down the pole, cuffed Jiggy 
before the astonished bear could get his breath, leaped 
over him, and landed on a fence. 

Jiggy sprang at Teddy, but he could not climb 
the fence, because he was dragging a heavy chain and 
weight behind him. For half an hour Teddy cuffed 
and tormented him, till his owner came and took him 
away. He looked very ugly and unhappy, while 
Teddy looked so triumphant and cunning that every 
one felt like giving him a good supper and asking 
for a bear-hug. 

8. Find the noims in *^The Story of Clytie,'' 
pages 33 and 34. 

9. Take some other book of yours, such as a his- 
tory, a reader, or a story-book, and find as many 
nouns as possible. Find other nouns in this book. 


You have learned that nouns are the names of 
objects, most of which you can see, hear, smell, taste, 
or touch ; in other words, they are things that can be 
perceived by your five senses : sights hearing, smell, 
taste^ and touch. 


There are other things in the world which cannot 
actually be seen, but which are very real things, 
nevertheless. You cannot see the air^ the wind, a gale, 
a hurricane, a cyclone, or a tornado, but you can see 
and feel the result of storms. 

You cannot see electricity itself, but you can see 
what an electrical current does. Neither can you see 
the wonderful force, gravitation, but you have 
learned that it prevents the atmosphere and the 
oceans of the earth from flying into space, and causes 
objects to fall toward the center of the earth instead 
of falling off the earth. 

You cannot see time, but it is what vour life is 
made of. The divisions of time are real things, to be 
used or wasted ; such as, seconds, minutes or moments, 
hours, days, nights, tveeks, months, seasons, years, 

You cannot see the thoughts or ideas in people's 
minds, or the good or bad feelings or emotions in their 
hearts. You know that wrong 'thoughts are very 
powerful ; they may cause men to rob or injure their 
fellow-men, or to go to war. Good thoughts and emo- 
tions make men do noble things for one another and 
for their country. You cannot see the love, kindness, 
patriotism, hatred, jealousy, greed, selfishness, or 
other feelings in people's hearts, but many of them 
are shown in faces, and you can see the results 
in actions. 

Such words as air, wind, storm; electricity, gravi- 
tation; time, day, month, year, century; thought, idea; 
emotion, love, hatred, selfishness, kindness, are 



NOUNS, because they are all the 

names of something. 

The following list contains nouns similar to those 

explained in 

this lesson. Same other such nouns, 

if you can. 























































Make sentences containing the words in the above 
lists used as NOUNS. 

Find the nouns in the following story : 


A long time ago, there lived a beautiful maiden 
named Proserpina, who was the daughter of Ceres, 
the goddess of the harvest. 


While Ceres was busy in making grain, fruit, and 
vegetables grow, Proserpina played in her mother's 
garden, where grew daffodils, violets, primroses, 
tulips, hyacinths, and many other fragrant blossoms. 

One day, while Proserpina was in the garden gath- 
ering a wonderful nosegay, she heard a rumbling 
noise like thunder, which grew louder and louder. 
Proserpina was somewhat frightened, and she became 
terrified when she saw that the sky had darkened, and 
the earth had opened at her feet. 

Prom out the deep chasm, coal-black horses 
emerged, drawing a chariot in which was seated a 
gloomy-looking man with jet-black hair and beard, 
and black eyes that he was trying to sliade from the 
light. He was dressed in a wonderful robe of rich 
silk, embroidered with marvelous gems. Proserpina 
knew that he was Pluto, King of the Underworld. 

Pluto sprang from the chariot, looked hastily 
around to see that no one was near ; then he snatched 
Proserpina in his arms, mounted his chariot and 
drove back to his home in the depths of the earth. 

Proserpina screamed pitifully, crying ** Mother, 
save me!'' She tried to escape, but Pluto held her 
fast, and told her that she was to be his little queen, 
and was to li^^e with him in a beautiful palace in the 
Underworld. He promised to give her delicious food 
and elegant gowns ; rings, bracelets, necklaces — every 
kind of jewel imaginable; in fact, she was to have 
everything that her heart might desire. 

Proserpina was not comforted, but begged for her 
mother, her lovely home and garden, and the blessed 


sunshine. She hated her gloomy new home, and wept 
till she could weep no more. Day after day she ate 
nothing — ^not a morsel of the rich, highly-seasoned 
food Pluto's servants put before her crossed her lips. 

Her mother, heart-broken at the loss of her child, 
took a torch and started out to search for her. She 
wandered all over the earth, but could find no trace 
of her beloved daughter. 

At last she made a vow that nothing should 
grow on the face of the earth until she found her 
child. The earth became parched and barren. 
Many people fainted away and died for lack of food, 
as Mother Ceres kept her solemn vow. At last the 
starving multitude besought Jupiter to help them 
in their trouble. 

Jupiter sent his messenger. Mercury, to tell Pluto 
that Proserpina must be restored to her mother, or 
all life on the earth would cease. He bade Mercury 
bring the maiden with him if she had eaten no food 
while in the Underworld. 

Proserpina, faint with hunger and longing, had 
begged often for fruit such as grew in her mother 's 
garden. At last Pluto had decided to grant her re- 
quest and sent a messenger to bring what he could 
find. But vegetation was dead ; he could find only one 
withered pomegranate to bring back with him. 

Proserpina snatched it eagerly and put her teeth 
into its tough, reddish-brown skin just as Mercury 
entered her room. When he told her that he had come 
to take her back to her mother, she cried with joy. 

He asked her whether she had eaten a part of the 


pomegranate she held in her hand. * ' I have not swal- 
lowed a mouthful/^ Proserpina replied, ^^but six 
seeds remained in my mouth. ^ ^ 

** Unfortunate child! Unhappy mother !^^ said 
Mercury. *^You may remain with your mother only 
six months of the year. The other half-year you must 
spend with Pluto. ^^ He then led Proserpina to the 
upper world. 

Ceres received her daughter with rapture. Im- 
mediately, green grass sprang up all over the earth, 
flowers blossomed, birds sang, and happiness returned 
to the hearts of men. 

During the six joyful months that Proserpina 
spent with her mother, the world was beautiful and 
fruitful — ^harvest followed the spring-time. When 
she returned to King Pluto ^s realm, Ceres once more 
kept her vow. Vegetation again disappeared from 
the earth and winter reigned until her beloved Pros- 
erpina, or Spring, returned. 




The little child that you have been watching, 
gradually makes discoveries about the objects he 
learned to call by name. He soon begins to say : red 
shoes, Hack cat, white horse ; cold water, warm milk, 
hot fire ; sweet sugar, sour orange ;. bright light, dark 
room; big ^ * choo-choo, ^ ' little baby; hard rock, soft 
kitty, woolly lamb ; smooth glass, rough board ; round 
ball^ square box ; pretty flower, ugly toad ; noisy boy, 
quiet mouse; good mamma, naughty boy. Without 
knowing it, he learns to use words to describe objects, 
and show some quality that they possess, such as color, 
taste, odor, shape, size, brightness, smoothness; that 
is, words that tell how objects look, or taste, or smell, 
or feel, or sound. 

He very soon learns to point out with his 
little finger the objects that he wishes, and later 
learns to say this apple, that orange, these cherries, 
those flowers. 

He learns, also, to speak of one dog ; to ask for two 
cookies, three plums, four candies, etc. ; thus he uses 
words to count or number objects. Later he learns to 
say each girl, every boy, both babies, all children, a 
whole family; a few pennies, several dimes, many 



dollars, no money; any person, most people, the 
only child. 

He asks for more milk, some oatmeal, much 
sugar, using words that express amount or quantity. 
Think of other such words. 

All words used with nouns to ^escribe objects, to 
point them out, to number them, br to express quan- 
tity are called ADJECTIVES. ThQ word ^^^ adjec- 
tive^' comes from two Latin words — ^^ad,''' meaning 
**to'' or ** towards, '' and **jacere,'' meaning^* to 
throw.'' Adjectives always are * thrown toward" 
nouns. Most adjectives answer one of the following 
questions: **what kind?" ** which?" **how many?" 


Game 1 

Would you like to play some adjective games? 
Let us play the one called, ^^I'm Thinking of Some- 
thing." Describe some object in the schoolroom and 
see if the class can gTiess what it is. Describe some 
object not in the schoolroom, for your classmates 
to guess. What adjectives did you use?' Play this 
game at home frequently. 

Game 2 

Describe one of your schoolmates; be very care- 
ful to be kind in what you say. What adjectives did 
you use ? 

Describe an Indian, a Chinaman, a negro, or an 


Eskimo. Let your classmates guess what one of the 
four you selected. What adjectives woiild describe 
the appearance of most Italian and Spanish people ? 
of most Norwegians and Swedes'? 

Write a description of a dog so accurately that 
your clasanaites will be able 
to tell what kind of dog you 
describe. Underline the ad- 
jectives used. 

Write a description of a 
bear; of a lion; of a robin; 
of any other animal or bird 
that you wish to describe. 
Underline your adjectives. 
Write a description of 
a baby; of a doll. Underline the adjectives used. 

Game 3 
Have you ever played the game called "My 
Grandmother's Cat?" Would you like to try it? 


Mary may say, **My grandmother's cat is an 
Angora cat/' Margaret may say, **My grand- 
mother's cat is an amusing cat." Some one else may 
say, ^^My grandmother's cat is an angry cat," or *^an 
artful cat," or use any other adjective beginning with 
* ^ a, " to describe the cat. 

When each child in the class has had a turn, begin 
with ^^b;" use such words as ^* beautiful," ** black," 
etc. Then take ^^c," ^^d," ^^e," ^^f," etc., in the same 
way. Keep lists of the adjectives used. 


Game 4 

Play the game ^^I Adore You." One child may 
say to a classmate, ^^I adore you because you are 
amiable/^ Another may say, *'I adore you because 
you are brave/ ^ A third, *^I adore you because you 
are charming/^ Continue in this way; use each 
letter of the alphabet. Keep lists of the adjec- 
tives used. 

Game 5 

Find adjectives with meanings similar to those in 
the following lists and play another game of partners : 




















Give other examples similar to those above. 


Game 6 

Find adjectives with meanings just the opposite 
to those in the following lists : 

old clean long 
quiet light shallow 
busy sweet heavy- 
high rich pleasant 
ugly thick cold 
good fat gloomy 
sick strong disagreeable 

Give other similar examples. Try to invent other 
ad j ective-games. 

Game 7 

Use adjectives in the blank spaces in the fol- 
lowing sentences : 


Once upon a time, there lived a girl 

named Cinderella. 

She had sisters, who made her do the work 

in the kitchen. 

She wore clothes and shoes, and was 

often so ■■ — that she had to warm her feet 

in the cinders. 

Her sisters called her * * Cinderella. ' ' 

They always wore clothes. 

They were once invited to a ball. 

They had dresses to wear. 

Cinderella could not go because she had only 
r rags for clothes. 


She wept tears. 

All at once her Fairy Godmother appeared. 

She touched Cinderella's dress. 

It became a gown. 

Her shoes changed Into ■ 


A pumpkin was transformed into a 


mice became horses to draw the 


Cinderella went to the ball and was the 

maiden there. '' 

The prince fell in love with her. 

Her godmother had told her to be home by mid- 
night, so when the clock struck twelve, Cinder- 
ella hurried out of the ball-room. 


She l6st one slipper in her haste. 

The prince picked it up. 

She was too late, and found that her dress 

had changed back into rags. 

Her coach had turned into a 


Her horses had become mice that 

had scampered away. 

The next morning, the prince's messenger ap- 
peared with the slipper. 

He had been ordered to try it on the feet of 

^woman, till he found the maiden whom 

the prince loved and wanted to marry. 

The — = sisters tried first, though they 

had very -^ feet. 

They could not wear the slipper. 

They said, in voices, **Go away 

immediately ! ' ' 

The messenger refused to go until he had 

seen Cinderella. 

He tried on the slipper, which exactly 

fitted her foot. 

The Fairy Godmother appeared and again trans- 
formed her dress into a gown. 

The sisters then recognized the 

maiden whom they had seen at the ball. 

Cinderella married the prince and they 

lived lives together ever after. 

Write a story; omit all adjectives; allow the class 
to fill out the blank spaces you leave. 


Game 8 
Find the adjectives in the following story : 


Clytie was a lovely nymph who hved in a wonder- 
ful palace beneath the great sea. Her beautiful home 
had blue-green walls ; its smooth 
floor sparkled with golden 
sands, and its crystal roof with 
glistening gems. In its mar- 
velous garden grew rare sea- 
flowers, soft mosses, delicate 
sea-weeds, and branching coral. 

Clytie had little playmates 
with -whom she sported 
happily. One of her favorite 
games was to harness a rainbow- 
hued fish to a pearly shell and 
drive past her frolicsome 
friends. Clytie was the pret- 
tiest nymph of all; she had 
long, golden hair ; bright, blue ; 
eyes ; round, rosy cheeks ; and coral-hued lips. She 
always wore a pale-green gown, with glints of sun- 
light hiding in its shimmering folds. 

One happy day a great wave lifted her tiny chariot 
to its foamy crest. As she drove along the surface of 
the 'deep, restless sea, she saw a glorious sight. The 
great sun-god, ApoUo, came forth from the golden 
gates of the East, and guided his mighty steeds and 
flaming chariot across the blue sky. 


Clj^ie was so charmed with the beautiful sun-god 
that she allowed her chariot to return to the depths 
of the sea, while she lingered on the lonely shore. 
She hoped that Apollo would speak a loving word to 
her yearning heart, but he saw her not. 

Dark night came and she was terrified, but a 
caressing wind, in a gentle whisper, bade her wait till 
the early dawn. With wide-open, frightened eyes she 
waited till rosy-fingered Aurora flung wide the golden 
gates. Again Apollo came forth ; again he heeded her 
not, except to send a scorching, withering glance 
down upon her. 

She gazed at him with adoring eyes and burning 
cheeks ; at last her slender figure drooped. She dis- 
covered that she could not move ; her little feet were 
rooted to the sandy soil ; her dainty down of softest 
moss was changed to one of coarse, green leaves ; her 
drooping body had become a stiff, upright stalk ; her 
fair face had turned to a dull-brown hue, and was 
surrounded by a halo of yellow leaves, that resembled 
Apollo's golden crown. She had changed into a 
tall sunflower. 

Since then she has always turned her face toward 
the shining sun, with a constant loVe in her faith- 
ful heart. 


Many words generally used as nomas are some- 
times used in a different way. In the following 
sentences, how are the words in italics used ? Give 
reasons for your answers. 


Gold is a yellow metal. 

The gold watch was valuable. 

Silver is found in Colorado. 

The silver spoon was made by an Indian. 

That stone is very heavy. 

The stone wall was old and crumbling. 

A hrich is made of clay. 

The hrich house was well built. 

Much silk is made in Japan, China, and India. 
The silk thread was unwound from the cocoon. 

Velvet is soft and beautiful. 
The queen wore a velvet gown. 

Queen Elizabeth's hair was red. 
The hair mattress was soft. 

An onion is a vegetable. 

Vegetable ivory comes from pahn-trees. 

The words gold, silver, stone, brick, silk, velvet, 
hair, and vegetable are usually nouns, hut are often 
used as adjectives. 

Give other examples. 

In the following sentences, how is each word in 
italics used — as a noun or as an adjective? 

The old man was ill and poor. 
We should be very kind to the old. 

Young people are often thoughtless and unkind. 
Animals and birds love their young. 


The blind girl made baskets. 

^^Help the poor hlind'^ to help themselves. 

The American flag has red stripes, white stripes, 
and white stars on a hlue field. 

The red stands for bravery ; the white stands for 
purity ; the hlue stands for truth. 

** Three cheers for the Bed, White, and Blue/' 

The words old, young, blind, red, white, and blue 
are usually adjectives, but are sometimes used as 
NOUNS. Give other similar examples. 

Game 9 
Use the following words both as adjectives and 

as nouns : 




















American . 


Game 10 

Divide the class into two groups, a noim-group 
and an adjective-group. Let a word be chosen by the 
noun-group that may be used both as an adjective and 
as a noun. Let the leader choose a pupil in the 
adjective-group to make a sentence containing that 


word used as an adjective. If he answers correctly, 
ha may remain with his own group ; if incorrectly, he 
must join the other group. That side wins which has 
the largest number of pupils at the end of the game. 

Game 11 

Reverse the above game; choose adjectives that 
may be used as nouns. Play the game in the same 
way that you played Game 10. 


If your teacher should say merely the word * ^ dog, '*' 
your mind would recall one of many kinds of dogs 
that you have known. In fact, each boy or girl here 
might think of a different kind of dog — a terrier, a 
spaniel, a setter, or some other kind. The same would 
be true if she were to say, ^'A dog is lying on the 
grass. ' ^ She would not be definite or clear as to what 
kind of dog was there, nor whose dog it was. 

If she said to you, * * The dog is lying on the grass, ' ' 
about whose dog would she be speaking ? How many 
dogs would a friend understand that you owned ? 

If she said, ^*This is an apple from our tree,'^ 
would the friend know how many apples hung on the 
tree ? Suppose she said, ' ' This is the apple from our 
tree, ' ' how many apples would your friend know had 
grown that year? Which is more definite or clear, 


If you say, * ' Pour rivers of North America are the 
Mississippi, the Missouri, the St. Lawrence, and the 
Rio Grande,'^ would a person who knew nothing of 
North America be sure as to how many rivers the 
continent has ? If you say, ''The four rivers of North 
America are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the St. 
Lawrence, and the Rio Grande, '' how many rivers 
would one think are in North America % Would that 
statement be true? You see that you must be very 
careful how you use the little words * * a, ' ^ * * an, ' ^ and 
**the.^^ They are used so frequently that they are 
sometimes classed by themselves and are called 
ARTICLES. ^^The'' is called the deiinite article, 
and *^a'' and *^an'^ are called the indefinite articles. 
Why'i Because they are used with nouns, they are 
sometimes called adjectives. 

Game 12 

Do you use a or an with the following words ? 
















Give other similar examples. With what letters 
do the above words begin? What are a, e, i, o, ti 


In the following lists, use a or an correctly : 


















































Give other similar examples. 

Game 13 

Print a large letter A upon one card, the word AN 
upon another, and the word THE upon a third. 
Give the cards to three pupils. 

The pupil who holds the card ^^THE^^ must give 
a name to every other pupil in the class, such as 
elephant, alligator, eagle, tiger, lion, etc. He must 
call -out these names, one at a time. As each pupil's 
new name is called, he must take his place beside * * A ' ' 
or^^AN/' . 


Play the game again, but use names of birds, in- 
sects, flowers, or anything else that you wish to use* 

Game 14 

Play the game * * I 'm Thinking of Something. ^ ^ A 
pupil may say, **I'm thinking of something that 
begins with *A/ '' Another pupil may ask, **Are 
you thinking of an automobile?" If he has not 
guessed correctly, other pupils may try in turn. The 
one who guesses correctly may say, ^^I am thinking 
of something that begins with *E.' '' The next suc- 
cessful guesser may use * * I ' ' ; the next, * ^ O ' ' ; the next, 
^*TJ.'' Any pupil who uses ^*a" when he should use 
*^an" must drop out of the game. 




Have you ever noticed hqw frequently a little 
child uses the word "baby," and how often he re- 
peats other names'? He will say, "Baby loves Kitty. 
Give kitty to baby. That's baby's kitty. Kitty 
scratched baby. Baby's scratch hurts." 

Some day he discovers that he can say the same 
thing in a different way. How would an older child 
say the above sentences? Make a list of the words 
that you have used instead of "kitty" and "baby." 
Later the child learns that still other words may be 
used in place of the names of things. 

Use other words in the following sentences for the 
repeated nouns : 

Little Tom loved to throw stones. 


One day, Tom threw a stone at a mother-robin sit- 
ting on the mother- robin's nest in an apple-tree. The 
stone struck the tree and frightened the mother- 
robin, so that the mother-robin flew away. 

Tom's sister Jean saw Tom throw the stone, so 
Jean told Tom about robins' nests. Jean said, 

"Father and Mother Robin build a cozy hduse for 
robin-babies to hve in. Mother Robin lays the eggs 
in the nest. 

"The eggs are the robin-babies' cradles. Mother 
Robin must sit on the eggs to keep the eggs warm. 
If ilother Robin leaves the eggs for a long time, the 
baby-robins in the egg-cradles will die. Tom, would 
Tom like to have some one frighten Tom's mother or 
harm Tom's baby-sister in baby-sister's cradle?" 
Tom answered, "Tom is sorry, Jean. Tom will not 
do that again." 


Jean said, ^^Let Tom and Jean put out crumbs 
every day for the robins. Father Robin will sing to 
Tom and Jean. Perhaps the robins will come back 
to Tom's yard and Jean's yard next year." 

When the baby-robins were hatched, Tom often 
watched the baby-robins eat worms that the baby- 
robins' parents brought to the baby-robins. Each 
baby-robin opened the baby-robin 's mouth very wide. 
Later the baby-robins learned to fly, and flew away 
from the baby-robins ' home in the apple-tree. 

Keep a list of all the words that you used instead 
of the repeated nouns. For what noun was each word 
used ? What words referred to persons ? what words 
to things ? 


There are words that you use instead of nouns, 
when you are asking questions. Find them in the 
following sentences: 

Who is there ? Whom did you ask to go ? 

Who told you so ? Which is right ? 

Whose is it ? Which is wrong ? 

Whose was it ? What have you there ? 

Whom did you see ? What did you say ? 

For what words were who, whose, whom, which, 
and what used ? 


Who, whose, whom, which, what, and that are used 
instead of nouns in a still different way. In the fol- 
lowing sentences, find the nouns to which they refer : 


The boy who was cruel to animals was punished. 
The horses whose masters were cruel to them be- 
came vicious. 

The man whom we saw beating his horse was 

The food which was unfit to eat was given the 

We could not believe what we heard. 

Many French houses that were burned will be 

Who and whom refer to persons, which and what 
to things, whose and that to persons or things. 

You have discovered that I, my, mine, me; we, our^ 
ours, US; you, your, yours; he, his, him; she, her, hers; 
it, its; they, their, theirs, them; who, whose, whom, 
which, what, and that are all used in place of nouns. 
They belong to a word-family called PRONOUNS. 


The word * * pronoun ' ' means * ' for a noun. ' ' Learn 
the above list, a few pronouns at a time. 


*^ Friends'' or Quakers use thou, thy, thine, thee, 
and ye instead of you, your, and yours. These pro- 
nouns are used in poetry, also, as well as in the Bible, 
and in many old books. This group of pronouns is 
often called the *^ ancient form.'' What does 
' ' ancient ' ' mean ? This form is also called the poeti- 
cal form. Why ? 


What pronouns of the ancient form might you 
use in the following sentences ? 

art a good child. 

Fold hands in prayer. 

The book is ; father gave it to . 

art the king of glory. 

Hallowed be name. 

kingdom come ; will be done. 

For is the kingdom and the power and 

the glory. 

We praise — j O Lord. 

Praise the Lord. 


Myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves, himself, 
herself, itself, and themselves are pronouns. Use 
them in sentences. 

Never say **theirselves'' instead of ^ themselves. " 
There is no such pronoun as * Hheirselves. ' ' 

Never say, ^* Louise and myself have a big 
brother. ' ' Say, ' * Louise and / have a big brother. ' ' 
Invent a game ; use the above pronouns correctly in 
the game. 


Game 1 
Use pronouns in the following blanks : 


King Midas loved gold so much that asked 

for the GOLDEN TOUCH. After was 


granted to , everything that touched 

turned into gold. 

At breakfast could neither eat food nor 

drink water, for changed into gold before 

could swallow . felt much dis- 
tressed and cried aloud. little daughter Mary- 
gold ran to comfort , and put 

soft arms around neck. was changed 

into a golden statue. 

Midas was horrified, and groaned with 

anguish. said, " hate the Golden 

Touch. wish taken away from ." 

was told to bathe in the river and 

sprinkle water over everything that had 


Marygold came back to life and cried out, "Don't, 


dear father ! are wetting pretty new 

dress ! ' ' did not know that had been 

a little golden statue, and never learned the 

fact from father. rejoiced over 

, and ever afterward hated the sight of all gold 

except lovely golden curls. (Adapted from 

Hawthorne's ** Wonder Book," and used with per- 
mission of the Houghton Mifflin Co.) 

Write a story ; leave blanks for pronouns to be put 
in by the class. 

Game 2 

Find the pronouns in the following rhyme : 

There was an old woman, as I have heard tell, 
Who went to market, her eggs to sell ; 
She went to market, all on a market day, 
And she went to sleep in the king's highway. 

There came by a peddler whose name was Stout, 
Who cut off her petticoats all round about ; 
He cut off her petticoats up to her knees, 
Which made the old woman to shiver and freeze. 

When the old woman at first did awake. 
She began to shiver and she began to shake ; 
She began to wonder, and she began to cry, 

* * Lawk-a-daisy on me ! This cannot be 1 1 " 

* * If it be I, as I hope it may be, 

I have a little dog at home, and he will know me ; 

If it be I, he will wag his little tail ; 

If it be not I, he will loudly bark and wail. ' ' 


Home went the little woman, all in the dark, 
Up got the little dog and he began to bark ; 
He began to bark, and she began to cry, 
* ' Lawk-a-daisy on me I This cannot be 1 1 " 

Act out the story of the old woman, the peddler, 
and the dog. 

the owl and the jays 

One of the children may be a wise old owl that can- 
not see well in the daytime. A number of boys may 
be naughty, mischievous bluejays that love to tease 
poor, half -blind owls. Each boy may choose a girl for 


his mate whom he will protect, as jays are kind to 
their families though not good to their neighbors. 
Another boy may be a hawk. 

The jays may dart up to 
the owl and annoy him by 
pecking at him, pulling him 
about, etc. 

The owl may say ; 

"Who, who, who are 

The jays may reply: 

"We are beautiful birds 
of blue!" 

(Owl) "Who, who, who strikes my eye?" 

(Jays, one at a time) "It is I!" "It is II" "It is 
I!" "It is I!" (If a jay says "It is me" instead of 
"It is I," he must be driven away by the others.) 

(Owl) "Who, who, who hurt me?" 

(Jays, blaming one another) "It was he!" "It 
was he I" "It was he!" "It was he!" (If a jay says 
"It was him" instead of "It was he," he, too, must 
be driven away.) 

(Owl, who has cai^ht one of the female birds) 
"Did you, did you play tricks on me?" 

(Her mate) "It was not she! It was not she!" 

(The hawk, swooping down, frightens the jays 

(Owl) "Who, who were they ? the jays?" 

(Hawk) "Yes, it was they; it was only they; 
And I have driven them all awav." 


(Owl goes to sleep in peace and Hawk flies away.) 
Invent another game in which you use the sen- 
tences, ^*It is I/' ^^It is he," ^^It is she,'' ^^It is they." 

Game 4 

See if you can invent a gift-game in which you will 
use correctly the following expressions : 

It was given to Mary and me. (Not /.) 
It was given to Harry, John, and me. (Not /.) 
Give it to her and to me; to Mm and to me. 
Give me a flower. (Not gimme.) 
I gave the flowers to her and to him. (Not give.) 
We children (not us children) gave gifts. 
Never use the pronoun ^^them" instead of the 
adjective ^Hhose;" say, *^Give those flowers to Helen 
and me." Invent a game using ^^ those" in eadi 

Never say, ^*Who did you give it to?" Say, **To 
whom did you give it ? " Do not say, ' ' Who did you 
see?" Say, **Whom did you see?" Some day you 
will learn the reasons for such a use of **whom." 
Your teacher will help you to invent a game in which 
**who" and *^whom" will be used correctly. 

Do not say, ^^ Mother she saw it," or ^*A man he 
came to our house and told me the story." Say, 
^^ Mother saw it," or ^^She saw it;" and, **The man 
who came to our house told me the story." 

Play a game in which a child does something and 
another child tells in two ways what the first child 


has done; as, ''Frank hopped/' ''He hopped/' 
"Grace turned round. ' ' "She turned round. ' ' 

Play another game in which each pupil tells of 
something which has been told him ; as, * * The boy who 
lives near me told me about flying-fish. ^^ " The woman 
who lives next door told us about goldfish/' 

Game 5 

Find all the nouns in the following story to which 
the pronoun *Hhat" refers. How many refer to per- 
sons ? how many to things ? 

This is the house that Jack built. 

This is the malt that lay in the house that Jack 

This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the 
house that Jack built. 

This is the cat that caught the rat that ate the malt 
that lay in the house that Jack built. 

This is the dog that worried the cat that caught 
the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that 
Jack built. 

This is the cow with the crumpled horn that tossed 
the dog that worried the cat that caught the rat that 
ate the malt that lav in the house that Jack built. 

This is the maiden all forlorn that milked the cow 
with the crumpled horn that tossed the dog that wor- 
ried the cat that caught the rat that ate the malt that 
lay in the house that Jack built. 

This is the man all tattered and torn that loved the 
maiden all forlorn that milked the cow with the 


crumpled horn that tossed the dog that worried the 
cat that caught the rat that ate the malt that lay in 
the house that Jack huilt. 

This is the priest aU shaven and shorn that mar- 
ried the man all tattered and torn and the maiden all 
forlorn that milked the cow with the cnunpled horn 
that tossed the dog that worried the cat that caught 
the rat that ate the nialt that lay in the house that 
Jack huilt. 

This is the cock that crowed in the morn and wak- 
ened the priest all shaven and shorn that married 
the man all tattered and torn and the maiden all for- 
lorn that milked the cow with the crumpled horn that 
tossed the dog that worried the cat that caught the rat 
that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. 


Game 6 
Find the pronouns in the following poem : 


Between the dark and the daylight, 
When the night is beginning to lower, 

Comes a pause in the day's occupations. 
That is known as the Children's Hour. 

I hear in the chamber above me 

The patter of little feet, 
The sound of a door that is opened, 

And voices soft and sweet. 

From my study I see in the lamplight, 

Descending the broad hall stair. 
Grave Alice, and laughing AUegra, 

And Edith with golden hair. 

A whisper, and then a silence ; 

Yet I know hv their merry eyes 
They are plotting and planning together 

To take me by surprise. 

A sudden rush from the stairway, 

A sudden raid from the hall ! 
By three doors left unguarded 

They enter my castk.wall ! 

They climb up into my turret 
O 'er the arms and back of my chair ; 

If I try to escape, they surround me ; 
They seem to be everywhere. 

•Used by permission of the Houghton Mifflin Co., the authorized 


They almost devour me with kisses, 

Their arms about me entwine, 
TUl I think of the Bishop of Bingen 

In his Mouse-Tower on the Rhine ! 

Do you think, O blue-eyed banditti, 
Because you have scaled the wall, 

Such an old mustache as I am 
Is not a match for you all ! 

I have you fast in my fortress. 

And will not let you depart. 
But put you down into the dungeon 

In the round-tower of my heart. 

And there will I keep you forever. 

Yes, forever and a day. 
Till the walls shall criunble to ruin. 

And moulder in dust away I 

Henry W. Longfellow. 


Sometimes which, what, whose, and that are used 
with nouns in the way that adjectives are used; 
for example. 

Which road shall I take ? 

I do not know which road is the right one. 

What time is it ? 

I do not know what time it is. 

Whose automobile is that ? 

I know whose car was wrecked. 

That truck dashed into the tree. 


Whenever which, what, whose, and that belong to 
NOUNS, they are called adjectives instead of 


^ ^ Which ^^ is generally used when we speak of two 
objects, and ^'what'^ when we speak of more than 
two ; as. Which dress shall I put on, my pink dress or 
my blue dress ? Which hand will you choose ? What 
hook have you? What children will invent a game 
about these words ? 




What does a very young baby do ? 
He eats, sleeps, and cries. He hicks his feet and 
moves his hands. 

What does he do when he is a little older ? 
He smiles, laughs, and coos. He learns to pat-a- 
cake, also. 

He creeps, climhs, walks, runs, falls, and talks. 
He plays, rides, and drives. Do yon think of anything 
else that he does ? 

He soon knows what animals do, and learns to say, 

'^Dog barks. Dog bites. 
Kitty mews. Kitty 
scratches. Cow moos. 
Pig grunts. Rooster 
crows. Bird sings. Bird 
fties.'^ What other things 
that animals or birds do 
will he probably discover? 

He knows what people and things do, also. He 
learns to say, ^'Mother sews. Father works. Sister 
reads. Brother whistles. Balls roll. Balls bounce. 
Dolls break. Paper tears. Lightning flashes. Thun- 
der booms. The sun shines. The stars twinkle.^ ^ 
When he has learned to use words that tell what 
people or things do, or that express action, he has 



learned to speak in complete sentences — ^to express 
complete thoughts. . 

What words do you think of that will tell what 
yon like to do ? Suppose you begin with the first thing 
you do in the morning, and name some of the things 
that you do at home. What do you do in 
the schoolroom ? in the woods ? in the country ? 

Tell what your father does ; your mother ; a fire- 
man; a farmer; any other people whom you know. 
Keep lists of all the words used that express action. 
They belong to a large word-family. 


The word ^Verb'^ comes from a Latin word, 
^^verbum,'^ which means 'Hhe word.'^ The verb is 
the most important word in most sentences. No sen- 
tence is complete without a verb. It sometimes makes 
a sentence all by itself ; as. Go ! Stop ! Look ! Listen I 
Speak! Hurry! March! Halt! Give other examples 
of a one-word sentence. 


Game 1 

Pretend that you are Santa Claus, and act out 
what he is supposed to do. Pretend that you are an 
Indian; a sailor; a soldier. Have the class guess 
what you are doing. Keep lists of the verbs or action- 
words that are used. Invent other similar games. 

Game 2 
Choose some occupation and have the class guess 


from your acting what one you selected. Keep lists 
of the verbs used. 

Game 3 
Act out the story of the discovery of America by 
Columbus ; of the landing of the Pilgrims ; of the Bos- 
ton Tea-Party. What verbs did you use? Act out 
other stories from your histories, readers, and story- 
books. Play this game at home frequently. 

Game 4 

dumb crambo 

Would you like to play ' ' Dumb Crambo ? ^ ^ Divide 
the class into two groups, one of which must leave the 
room. Those who remain may select a word that can 
be acted, such as ** greet." When the second group 
have returned, the leader of the first may say, *'We 
have chosen a word that rhymes with neat/^ 

The second group must then withdraw to confer 
about the word chosen. They perhaps decide that the 
word is ^^beat/^ They will then act out that word and 
the first group must guess what word they are acting. 
Then the first group say, **No, it is not beat/^ Per- 
haps eat, treat, meet, cheat, and other words will be 
acted before greet is thought of. When the second 
group give greet, the first group must say, ^* Yes, it is 
greet /^ They may then leave the room, and the sec- 
ond group may select their word. 

Game 5 

1. Find the verbs in the following sentences : 
A great eruption of Vesuvius occurred in 1906. 

The eruption began at night with a great 

The explosion blew away pan of the mountain. 
It threw red-hot rocks into the air. 
The earth rocked and trembled. 
Lightning flashed and flames roared. 

A great crack opened down the side of Vesuvius. 
Lava flowed down the mountain slopes. 
It buried houses and vineyards. 
People hastened to places of safety. 
They piled their belongings on the backs of dogs 
and donkeys. 

The animals staggered under their loads. 
Some people wept and wrung their hands. 


Others knelt and prayed. 
Trains carried some of them to Naples. 
Others embarked in the Capri boat. 
The dust blinded the sailors. 
The gases smothered them. 
They fell, half sick, on the decks. 
Ashes and dust covered everything. 
The roof of a building in Naples fell in and killed 
many people. 

At last the eruption ceased. 

The mountain grew quieter. 

The smoke lessened in volume. 

The king came from Rome and helped the people. 

2. Find the verbs in the following sentences: 

Columbus sailed from Palos, Spain. 
His three ships drifted across the Atlantic Ocean. 
, His timid sailors begged to go home. 
They nearly threw Columbus overboard. 
One day Columbus saw branches of trees. 
They floated on the water. 
The men soon sighted land in the distance. 
They shouted, ^'Land, land!'^ 
They anchored the ship and hurried ashore. 
They found Indians on the island who treated 
them kindly. 

They took the island in the name of Spain. 
They called it San Salvador. 

3. Find verbs in your histories, your readers, and 
your story-books. Keep a list of them in your note- 
books. Act out stories. 


4. Illustrate your note-books with pictures show- 
ing action. Draw them yourselves or cut them out of 
papers and old magazines. Write stories which the 
magazine pictures suggest ; underline the verbs. 

5. Write a story of an accident you once saw ; of 
a house on fire ; of a trip to the woods ; of a fishing-trip 
or a camping-trip ; of some fine moving-pictures you 
saw. Underline the verbs. 


You have learned that verbs are used to express 
action. You have learned that verbs are used to 
complete sentences, also. Many other words that do 
not express action are used frequently to com- 
plete sentences. 

In the following sentences, notice how the words 
in italics are used : 

I am a human being. 

You are a girl. 

He is a boy. 

The aviator was an American. 

The men were sailors. 

I have been warmer. 

The winter has been cold. 

The people had been uncomfortable. 

I shall be glad. 

You will be kind. 

A girl may be brave. 

The example can be solved. 


People must be honest. 

The news might he true. 

The work could he done. 

It would he dangerous. 

He should he more careful. 

It may have heen beautiful. 

You might have heen late. 

The lesson could have heen learned. 

He would have heen ill. 

I should have heen anxious. 

The words in italics are different forms of the 
verb ^Ho be.^' They do not express action, but are 
used to join the name of an object to some other 
word or words in the sentence that tell something 
about the object. 

They are called verbs, but are also called 
COPULAS, which word means something that 
unites or joins. What do *^ couple ^^ and *^ coupling- 
pin" mean? 

Game 1 

Draw pictures of two freight-cars ; put a noun into 
each car and join the two with a copula. Put the 
copula where the coupling-pin is on a train. 






Put a noun in the first car and an adjective in the 
second ; unite them with a copula. 




Make many other similar diagrams. 

Game 2 

Find the copulas in sentences in your school-books 
and story-books. See who can find the greatest num- 
ber of sentences containing copulas. What words do 
the copulas join? 


The verbs become, seem, look, appear, and a num- 
ber of others, are sometimes used as copulas. Can you 
substitute anv forms of the verb ^ Ho be ' ^ for them ? 

Brave soldiers often become ofiicers. 

The camouflaged cannons seem tree-trunks. 

The aeroplanes look heavy. 

The pilots appear small. 

In the following sentences, are the words ** ap- 
peared ^^ and *^ looked^' used to express action or are 
they used as copulas ? 

A young man appeared suddenly at the door. 

He looked in at the window. 

He appeared anxious. 

He looked ill and tired. 


Give other sentences containing the words become^ 
seem, appear, and look. Invent a game in which you 
use the above words first as copulas and then as 
verbs expressing action. 


You have just learned that the following verbs 
are used to join other words to nouns or pronouns. 


shall be 

shall have been 


will be 

will have been 


may be 

may have been 


can be 

must have been 


must be 

might have been 


might be 

could have been 

have been 

could be 

would have been 

has been 

would be 

should have been 

had been 

should be 

They are used^ also, with verbs that express 
action, to show that the action was performed at dif- 
ferent times, as in the following sentences : 

I am going to the woods with you children. 
We are hoping to have a pleasant time. 
Your mother has been preparing our luncheon. 
We have been helping all that we could. 
We shall be starting in half an hour. 
The car will be driven to the door in a few minutes. 
Our warm wraps were packed in the car. 
Give other sentences containing the words in the 
above lists. Many of those words are used, also, with- 

out *'be," "been," and "have been," as in the fol- 
lowing sentences : 

John will go to the woods. 

He may find interesting things. 

He has found a bird's nest. 

The mother-bird had flown away. 
■ Parent-birds will leave their nests if their eggs or 
young are disturbed. 

The young birds would have died, if the parents 
had not returned. 

The verbs, do, does, and did are used, also, with 
other verbs ; as, I do Uke you. She does tell the truth. 
We did try. 

All of these verbs, when used with other verbs, 
help form the COMPLETE VERB of the sentence. 

Game 3 

Choose a pupil to be old Father Time. Choose 
three other pupils to be his children: Past Time, 
Present Time, and Future Time. 
Let Past Time select a verb which 
expresses action that is past, and 
choose a child to give a sentence 
containing that verb. If he can 
answer correctly, he may stand 
beside Past Time; if he cannot, 
he must stand beside Father Time. 

Present Time may next select 
a verb which expresses action that ' 
is taking place, and call on a pupil 


to give a sentence. He maj^ take his proper place be- 
side Present Time or Father Time, according to 
his answer. 

Future Time may then select a verb which ex- 
presses action that will take place, and call on a pupil, 
who will do as the others did. 

Of thie three groups, the one that has the greatest 
nmnber of pupils at the end of the game wins. Every 
menaber of Father Timers group must pay a forfeit. 

Game 4 

Find the verbs in the following sentences : 

The Alps Mountains extend through Switzerland. 

They separate Switzerland from Italy. 

The Matterhorn, one of the grandest and most 
famous peaks, lies on the Italian border. 

Its jagged summit is crowned with snow through- 
out the year. 

It stands out distinctly because of its shape. 

For many years men could not reach its summit. 

Many tried and failed. 

An Englishman, named Edward Whymper, 
finally succeeded. 

He was accompanied by six other men: Lord 
Francis Douglas, Mr. Hadow, Mr. Hudson, and 
three guides. 

The guides were named Croz, Old Peter, and 
Young Peter. 

They ascended the mountain slowly and carefully. 

They found it a steep, difficult climb near the top. 


Two hundred feet from the top they discovered an 
easy ascent over snow. 

They shouted with joy at their success. 

They wished to raise a flag, but had not 
brought one. 

They planted their tent-pole in the snow. 

They fastened Crozes blouse on the pole. 

People in the valleys below saw a dark object 
waving in the breeze. 

Whymper's men had heard that a party of 
Italians were ascending the mountain. 

They feared lest the Italians should reach the 
top first. 

While on the summit, they saw their rivals. 

They shouted, but received no reply. 

They finally rolled down small stones to attract 
the attention of the climbers. 

The Italians saw the party, turned, and fied. 

Whymper's men began their descent after an 
hour's joyous rest. 

Croz went first, then Hadow ; Hudson, an experi- 
enced climber, went third. 

Lord Frederick Douglas took the fourth place. 

The rugged, strong Old Peter followed him. 

Whymper and Young Peter brought up the rear. 

The men were all fastened together with ropes. 

They wore spiked shoes; «ach man carried an 

Croz cut steps in the ice with his axe. 

Only one man moved at a time, in dangerous 


Mr. Hadow's foot slipped; he fell against Croz, 
and knocked him over. 

Mr. Hudson and Lord Douglas were dragged from 
their feet. 

Old Peter and Whymper braced themselves. 

They might have held the others firmly, but the 
rope broke between Lord Douglas and Peter. 

The four men slid on their backs. 

They tried to save themselves, but they fell four 
thousand feet and were killed. 

For half an hour, the three remaining men never 


Old Peter and Young Peter cried like little 

They said that if Croz had perished, they could 
never hope to descend safely. 

They refused to move a step. 

At last Old Peter summoned up his courage. 

Ropes were tied to rocks; a step at a time, the 
men descended. 

Several times Old Peter turned and said, ^*I can- 
not go farther ! ' ^ 

But at last the perilous descent was finished. 

A wonderful arch called a ''Fog-bow'' appeared 

in the sky. 

Two crosses formed inside the arch. 

The superstitious guides thought that it had some- 
thing to do with the accident. 

Whymper knew that it was caused by the sun 

and mist. 

The bodies of his friends were recovered. 


Croz is buried in Zermatt, a lovely little village at 
the foot of the Matterhom. 

Wihymper tells of his adventures in a book that is 
called '^Scrambles Among the Alps/^ 

Act out as much of the above story as is possible. 
Notice carefully all the verbs in the story. 

Pronounce Croz, ^'^Kroats;^' Zermatt, ** Tsar- 
matt;" Whymper, ^ ^ Whina-per ; " Italians, *^It-al- 
yens, ' ^ not ' ' I-tal-yens. ' ^ 

Game 5 

Find the verbs in the following sentences. Name 
those that are simple verbs ; complete verbs ; copulas. 

Ellen and Joe 'are rude, thoughtless children. 

They have very loud, unpleasant voices. 

They interrupt people who are talking. 

They whisper in school, in church, at concerts, 
and at entertainments, while others are trying 
to listen. 

They put their feet on the backs of people 's chairs. 

They kick chairs and scrape their feet on the 
rounds, which is disagreeable to others. 

They hum, sing, and whistle when others wish to 
be quiet. 

They chew gum when they are in public places. 

When they are in crowds, they push people 
aside roughly. 

They always rush for the best places everywhere. 

They sit in their seats when older people are 


At the table, they have very rude manners. 

They snatch food from each other's plates. 

They put their elbows upon the table. 

They eat with their knives and drink from their 

They spill food on the table-cloth. 

They take very large mouthfuls, and talk when 
their mouths are full of food. 

They tip back in their chairs. 

They do not fold their napkins when they leave 
the table. 

They leave their clothes and toys about their 

Their tired mother must pick up their things 
every day. 

At school, they throw scraps of paper upon 
the floor. 

The busy janitor must sweep up the scraps. 

They lose books, pens, papers, and overshoes. 

Their tired teacher must look after things that 
children should take care of themselves. 

They scatter papers and peanut-shells upon the 
floors of street-cars, trains, railroad-stations, and 

Such places are thus made very untidy and 

They throw grape-skins and banana-skins upon 
the sidewalks. 

People slip on them and often are injured. 

If they break bottles in the street, they do not 
pick up the pieces. 


They leave papers and boxes in parks after they 
have eaten their luncheons. 

They do not care how ugly they make the 
parks look. 

They do so because they have not been taught to 
be neat, or to be thoughtful of others. 

Workmen must gather up the refuse. 

The city must pay the workmen. 

People might save our cities many dollars every 
year, if they were only neater and more careful. 

Our cities would then be more beautiful. 

They would be more healthful, too, if they were 

The children of America could do much to 
beautify our land, if all would help. 

Will you ^^do your bit r' 

You learned in a former lesson that many words 
are used both as nouns and as adjectives. See if 
you can tell how the words in italics in the following 
sentences are used : 

The leaves on the oak are turning red. 

The boy leaves the path to go into the woods. 

The water falls down the cliflf. 
Water the horse at the spring. 

The waves sparkle in the sunlight. 
The tree waves its branches in the wind. 


My watch keeps correct time. 
Cats watch for birds. 

The ring was made of gold. 

' ' Ring, grandpa, ring for liberty I ' ' 

The words leaves, water, waves, watch, and ring 
are nouns when used as the names of objects, and 
VERBS when used to express action. Give other ex- 
amples similar to those above. 

How are the words in italics in the following 
sentences used ? 

Walk toward the mountain. 

The walk in the garden was bordered with flowers. 

Leaves and nuts fall after a frost. 
Fall is a beautiful time of the year. 

Look at the deer ! 

The look in the deer's eyes made the hunter decide 
not to kill the poor creature. 

Indians dance and shout. 

The '* Snake Dance'' is a prayer for rain. 


The guide shouts at his horses. 

The lost boy heard the shouts of the guide. 

The words walk, fall, look, dance, and shouts are 
usually VERBS, but may be used as nouns. Give other 
similar examples. 


Game 6 


Use the following words as nouns and then 
as verbs : 

paint heat 


paper bite 


dress scratch 



shoe play- 


tie lie 


pin screain 


light strike 


Give other similar e3:amples. 

Game 7 

Divide the class into noun-groups and verb- 
groups ; then play games similar to those you played 
with noun-groups and adjective-groups. 



We found out in the last lesson that many words 
show, or express, action. Many other words tell some- 
thing further about the way action is performed 
or done. 

After a child has learned to run, he runs fast to 
get something he wants very much ; he walks slowly 
when he is unwilling to go somewhere. He laughs 
loud. He plays noisily. He eats hungrily. He de- 
vours greedily. He sleeps soundly. He works 
busily. He draws skillfully. He reads eagerly. 
He speaks distinctly when called upon to recite 
his lessons. 

His sister sews neatly. She cooks well. She works 
industriously. She studies faithfully. She answers 
correctly. She sits quietly. She smiles pleasantly. 
She speaks kindly. She plays happily. She 
sings sweetly. 

The words in italics tell how action has been done. 
Do you think of other words than those given above 
that tell how something has been done ? 

In the following sentences, what do the words in 
italics tell about action ? 




Go now. 
Go then. 
Come soon. 
Come often. 
Come again. 
Start ^arZ^/. 
Don 't stay late. 
You may go next. 
Birds*eat frequently. 
Bob has already gone. 
Work first, play a/^er- 

The woman seldom spoke. 
She rarely laughed. 
She occasionally smiled. 
Sarah tells the truth always. 
David sometimes teases Sarah. 
He usually helps his mother. 
He generally learns his lessons. 
He never cheats. 
Does he ever play unfairly ? 
Great deeds live forever. 
Nevermore will the man see 

Do you think of other words that tell when action 
was performed ? 

In the following sentences, what do the words in 
italics tell about action ? 

Who comes here f 
Who goes there? 
Bert climbs up. 
Baby falls down. 
Ned walks far. 
Martha plays near. 
Run away. 

Go somewhere. 
Birds fly northtvard in the spring. 
They fly southward in the autumn. 
The people drove homeward. 
Crabs walk sideways. 

Put it anywhere. 
I can go nowhere. 
He traveled everywhere. 
Stand hack. 
Move fortvard. 
Walk backward. 
Look upward. 
Look downward. 


The earth moves easUvard. 

The sun appears to move westward. 

I)o you think of other words that teU where ? 

In the following sentences, what do the words in 
italics tell about action ? 

Bertha worked little. Harrv learned most. 

Her mother worked much. George studied least. 
*^Talk less and eat more.'' Mary recited best. 
Herbert worked better than George. 
Finish your work completely. 
I have nearly finished. 
You have almost finished. 
She has entirely finished. 

*^He most lives, who thinks most, feels noblest, 
acts the best/' 

Do you think of other words that tell how much 
or how little action there has been ? 

All the words that belong to verbs and tell how, 
when, or tvhere an action has been performed, or 
express how much or how little action has taken 
place, are called ADVERBS. The word '^ adverb'' 
comes from two Latin words, ^^verbum,'' meaning 
^'the word,'' and '^ad," meaning 'Ho" or '^towards." 
Abverbs belong to verbs just as adjectives belong to 
nouns. Instead of saying '* belong to," you may use 
the word ^'modify," which means '^ change." How 
do adjectives and adverbs change the meaning of the 
words to which they belong ? 



Game 1 

Select adverbs expressing how action is per- 
formed that may be used with the following lists of 
verbs ; then act out the meaning of the words that you 
have selected. Have the class tell how you performed 
the action. 



















Give other similar examples. 

Game 2 

Turn to your lists of verbs and see who can use 
with them the greatest number of adverbs that tell 
how action was performed. Then use with the same 
verbs as many adverbs as possible which tell when, 
tvhere, how much, or how little. 

Game 3 

How would you make adverbs of manner (those 
that tell ^^how^^) out of the following adjectives? 








































Give other exatnples. See who can use correctly 
the greatest number of words similar to those in the 
above lists. 

Game 4 




Select a girl to be ^^ Madame How'' and another 
to be *^Lady When/' Choose a boy to be ^* Master 
Where" and another to be ^*Lord of High Degree." 

Let those chosen take turns in selecting a verb, and 
in choosing a child to name an adverb to express what 
his or her name suggests. If Madame How says, 
' ' Growl ! ' ' the child whom she selects must say * * Growl 
■fiercelyy^ or ^^loudly/' or use some other adverb 
which will tell the manner in which growling may 
be done. 

If Lady When says, ' ' Start ! " an adverb of time 
must be given; if Master Where says, '^Look!" an 
adverb of place is needed. If Lord of High Degree 
says, ** Drink!" an adverb telling how much or how 
little should be used. 

Play this game at home frequently. 


Game 5 
Act out the following story: 
A tailor sewed busily by the window of his shop. 
An elephant drew near. 
He thrust his trunk quietly into the open window. 

He looked curiously at the tailor. 
He felt about with his trunk. 
The tailor slyly pricked the tnmk with his needle. 
The elephant snorted loudly. 
He turned quickly and went away. 
The tailor soon forgot his unkind act and worked 

Later the elephant returned. 

He had entirely filled his trunk with muddy water. 


He suddenly squirted the water over the tailor 
and his work. 

He completely ruined the garment. 

The tailor then learned that unkindness to animals 
never pays. 

Find the verbs in the above story and also the 
adverbs. What do the adverbs tell about the action ? 

Make up other stories for the class to act. Act 
out some of the stories from your histories ; keep lists 
of the verbs and adverbs that you use. 

Game 6 
^ Find the adverbs in the following true story : 


In a zoological garden there once lived a fierce 

She paced restlessly back and forth in her cage. 

She frequently flung herself against the bars. 

She growled fiercely at people who came to look 

She always sprang swiftly at the keeper when he 
brought her food. 

One day she jumped at him ferociously and 
knocked him down. 

She easily escaped before he could rise. 

She sped quickly through the garden. 

She frightened people and animals terribly. 

In terror, they immediately tried to hide; 

She bit and scratched right and left. 

Keepers ran hastily for their guns. 


She dashed away out of their reach. 

In one of the paths, she soon met a donkey. 

The donkey looked inquiringly at her for a 
moment. ' 

The lioness sprang suddenly at him. 

He instantly turned around and kicked violently. 

The lioness then leaped upon his back. 

She dug her claws deep into his haunches. 

As she clung tightly to him,^he kicked her again 
and again. 

He injured her severely ; with a howl of rage she 
dropped suddenly to the ground. 

A keeper then approached cautiously, and easily 
killed her. 

The poor little donkey was badly hurt. 

A doctor dressed his wounds carefully, but he 
soon died. 

He surely helped to save many lives. 

Do not say ^ * zoo-logical ;' ' say ^ * zo-6-logical, ' ' or 
^^zoo,'' for short. 


You have learned that the adverbs less, least, 
more, most, entirely, completely, and some others 
modify verbs, and tell how much or how little action is 
performed. They are used in still different ways. 

You sometimes wish to say that an object has a 
quality to a greater or lesser degree than another 
object ; for example, 

Roses are more beautiful than dandeUons. 

Clovers are less fragrant than lilies. 



It was the most glorious view that they had ever 

The deserts were entirely barren. 

On deserts, there are very hot days. , 

On deserts, there are extremely cold nights. 

Arizona and New Mexico are exceedingly dry 

California is a much warmer country than Alaska. 

Some parts of Alaska have quite mild smmners. 

Some grains will grow in Alaska, but it is too cold 
there for com. 

Grass grows very high there, because Alaska is 
so rainy. 

To what words in the above sentences do more, 
less, most, entirely, very, extremely, exceedingly, 
much, quite, too, and so belong? To what word- 
family do beautiful, fragrant, glorious, barren, hot, 
cold, dry, warmer, mild, high, arid rainy belong? 

We find that some adverbs modify adjectives. 


In the following sentences, what words are modi- 
fied by the adverbs in italics ? 

George wished very earnestly to be an aviator. 
He tried much harder to succeed than the other 


He learned more rapidly than the others. 

During his first flight, he behaved the most 
bravely of them all. 

The airship flew less easily when the wind blew. 


The wind blew too fiercely for the aviators to 

The storm raged so furiously that it would 
have been dangerous to go. 

They could not tell how soon they might go. 

To what word-family do Earnestly, harder, rap- 
idly, bravely, easily, fiercely, furiously, and soon 

We find that some adverbs modify other adverbs. 


Game 7 

Find the adverbs in the following sentences, and 
find, also, the verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs, that 
they modify : 

It was a bitterly cold evening in February. 

The snow had fallen fast | 
all day. 

The wind had howled 
very mournfully. 

It had blown the snow 
into drifts enormously high. 

Jack and Hilda went 
willingly to the post-office for 
their mother, to mail an ex- 
ceedingly important letter. 

They went across the 
river on a very small bridge 
near the post-office, instead 
of going over the large bridge. 


The river was entirely frozen over. 

The snow completely covered the bridge and the 

They stepped off the bridge into a snow-drift 
nearly six feet deep. 

They floundered about until they were quite 

Jack suddenly broke through the ice. 

Hilda screamed loudly, ' ' Help ! Help ! ' ' 

Some men finally heard her, and ran quickly to 
their aid. 

Jack was badly chilled and much frightened, but 
he soon recovered. , 


You have learned that some words may be used 
both as nouns and as adjectives, and that others may 
be used both as nouns and as verbs. Still others may 
be used both as adjectives and as adverbs. 

If you say, ^^The elephant is a large animal,'' to 
what word-family does *4arge'' belong? Why? If 
vou say, *^ Write large /^ how have you used ^^large?'' 

Tell how the words in italics in the following sen- 
tences are used : 

The French had little food during the war. 
The English children complained little, but they, 
too, were often hungry. 

European children had less food than they needed. 
America suffered less than the other Allies. 


Marie was a better student than Pierre. 
Pierre could have studied better if he had not been 
so hungry. 

More things are wasted in America than in 

English children walk more than American 

Most children like pictures and stories. 
The pictures of Alaska were the most beautiful 
of all. 

The photographer took them most carefully. 

He is the very boy whom I wish to do the errand. 
He is very honest and faithful. 
He will do the errand very quickly. 

The words large^ little, less, better, more, most, 
and very are adjectives when used with nouns, and 
ADVERBS when used with verbs, adjectives, or other 

In the following sentences how are to-day, to- 
morrow, to-night, and yesterday used ? 
To-day is Tuesday. 
He went to-day. 
To-morrow will be Wednesday. 
He will go to-morrow. 
To-night is stormy. 
He will play to-night. 
Yesterday was pleasant. 
He played yesterday* 


l&AME 8 

Use the following words as adjectives and then 
as adverbs : 

long early loud 

high late hard 

well fast straight 

stiU best much 

first back most 

last forward least 

Give other similar examples. Are any of the 
words in the above list ever used as nouns ? 

Game 9 

Play a game similar to the one which you 
played with noun-groups, adjective-groups, and verb- 
groups. Invent other games in which adjectives and 
iadverbs are used. 

Game 10 . 

- . > TJhe word two is usually an adjective, though it is 
sometimes used as a noun; as, Two children came. 
Two are here. 

The word too is an adverb ; as, The game wa^ too 
short. The story was too long. The girl was too ill 
to go. 

The adverbs how, when, where, and why fre- 
quently are used in questions; as Hotv do you do? 
How much does that cost? When did you come? 
Where did you find it ? Why must I do it ? 



The adverbs not^ ever, and never are generally 
used between two parts of a complete verb ; as, 

I did not see John. 

He has not been at home all day. 

He will not go to the picnic this afternoon. . 

Did you ever watch bees carefully ? 

They had never seen bees swarm. 

The children had never been to the country. 

Think of other sentences in which the above-named 
adverbs are used between parts of a complete verb. 


Many people use adjectives where they should 
use adverbs. 

They say : 

He does it good. 
She looks good. 

I feel pretty good. 
I slept good. 
It sure is beautiful. 
Will you do it? I sure 

That is real pretty. 
She spoke lovely. 
He did it quick. 

They should say: 

He does it well. 

She looks well (meaning 

not sick). 
I feel pretty well. 
I slept well. 
It surely is beautiful. 
I surely will. 

That is very pretty. 
She spoke beautifully. 
He did it quickly. 

The words in italics in the first column usually 
are adjectives; those in the second usually are 


Game 11 

Divide the class into groups, each group having 
a leader. Let every group watch for mistakes like 
those above, and report after a week the number of 
errors corrected, and the number of pupils who have 
not made the mistakes. 



Here is a picture of a boy. He is related in some 
way to every one whom he knows. He is his parents ' 
son, his grandparents' grandson, and is perhaps a 
brother of another child, or a nephew of some grown 
person. He himself may some day be an uncle, a 
brother-in-law, a husband, a father, or a grandfather. 
He is a schoolmate, a classmate, a playmate, a 
friend, or an acquaintance of every boy and girl whom 
he knows. He is a stranger to every one whom he 
does not know. 

When he grows older, he will be an employee of 
any man who gives him work to do ; he may some day 

be an employer himself. Do you 
think of any other relation which 
he might have to people ? 

He has a relation to things, 
also. He may be the driver of a 
- wagon, the engineer of a locomo- 
tive, or the conductor of a street- 
car. Do you think of any other 
relations that he may have ? 
Things, also, have a relation to other things ; such 
as, paint on a house, paper on a wall, bark on a tree, 
food in a pantry. 

Give other examples. 




This is a picture 
of a kitten. 

This is a picture 
of a bed. 

There are ways in which you may place them to 
bring them into relation with each other. 

Where is the kitten now ? 
The kitten is on the bed. 
The kitten sits upon the bed. 

Where is it now? 
The kitten is in the bed. 
The kitten is inside the bed. 

Where is it now? 

The kitten is tinder the bed. 

The kitten is beneath the bed. 



Where is it now ? 

The kitten is near the bed. 

The kitten is heside the bed. 

Where is it now ? 
The kitten rubs against the 

This is a picture 
of a girl. 

This is a picture 
of a bridge. 

Exercise 1. — See how many of the following 
words you can use to put the girl into different rela- 
tions with the bridge : 

over from under 

across of beside 

on ' off about 

to upon from 

at towards against 

by beyond below 


1. The girl stood the bridge. 

2. The girl leaned the bridge. 

3. She walked the bridge. 

4. She rowed the bridge. 

5. She went the bridge. 

6. She looked the bridge. 

7. She ran the bridge. 

8. She fell the bridge. 

9. She slipped the bridge. 

10. She talked the bridge. 

You see that the word relation may be used in dif- 
ferent ways. In our English lessons, it means a kind 
of connection between words. These words that bring 
nouns into relation with other words are called 
PREPOSITIONS, from two Latin words which 
mean ' " to place before. ' ' Every preposition is placed 
before a noun or a pronoun, called the object of the 
preposition. The preposition joins its object to some 
other word in the sentence, relating them to each 
other. A preposition and its object together are called 
a prepositional phrase. The object is either a noun 
or a pronoun. 

Exercise 2. — Put the following prepositional 
phrases into sentences : 

ah oar d the ship amid the dangers 

a})out the house amidst the flowers 

ahove the clouds among the children 

across the room amongst the trees 

after the ball around the world 



against the waU 
along the road 

before the mirror 
behind the house 
below the shelf 
beneath the roof 
beside the brook 

down the stairs 

except Margaret • 

for a child 

in a trunk 
into the room 

like a bear 

0/ candy 
off the sled 

pa^^ the window 

since the accident 

till night 
tfwh7 morning 
through* the woods 
throughout the storm 

under the bed 
wp the ladder 

f(;i^fe a knife 
tvithin a chest 

ai the picnic 

besides me 
bettveen the posts 
beyond the gate 
&ie/ the man 
&2/ the lake 

during the storm 

/row a store 
inside the box 

071 the ice 
over the snow 

round the field 

^0 the brook. 
toward the house 
towards the Hudson 

t^poTi the wall 

without a penny 

The simplified spelling of through is t^ni. 


In the above lists, the words that are in italics 
are prepositions. 

Exercise 3. — Learn the prepositions, a few at a 
time. They will help you to find prepositional 
phrases in sentences. 

Exercise 4. — The following words and groups of 
words are used as prepositions, but less commonly 
than those named before: 

The carpenter worked according to directions. 

He was positive as to the truth of the story. 

His raiment was divided hetwixt them. 

Many pleasant stories are told concerning 

Notwithstanding the cold, they went to school. 

The Gauls came out of the North, and conquered 

The rude girl whispered throughout the concert. 

They lifted their hearts unto God in prayer. 

None was rescued, save one sailor. 

(How is save used in ^^Save the boy! He has 
fallen overboard V^) 

Exercise 5. — ^You must be very careful of the way 
in which you use like, without, past, in, into, up, 
and upon. 

Like frequently is used as a verb; as, ^*I like to 
skate. '^ ^^I like grapes.'^ It must never be used in- 
stead of as. Do not say, ^^He writes like I do.^' Say, 
' ' He writes as I do, ' ' or ^ ^ He writes like me. ' ^ In the 
last sentence *4ike'' is a preposition and **me'' is its 
object. Invent a game in which you use **like^' 


J)o not use without instead of unless. Do not say, 
*^I cannot go without my mother allows me/' Say, 
^ ' I cannot go unless my mother allows me. ' ' Without 
is a preposition or an adverb; when it is used as a 
preposition, it must have an object. 

Examples : 

I went without my supper. 
He stood without. 

Invent a game in which you use ^^withouf and 
** unless/' 

Past is sometimes a noun; as, ^^ History is the in- 
teresting study of the past.^^ 

Passed is a verb; as, ^^She parsed the candy/' 
^^The automobile passed the door." 

Past is used as a preposition when followed by an 
object; as, ^*He walked past the gate.^^ ^^The bird 
flew past the lighthouse.^ ^ 

Invent a game in which you act out the meaning 
of ' ' past ' ' and ' ' passed. " 

In should not be used for into. You live in a house. 
You study in a schoolroom. You keep your belong- 
ings in closets, in drawers, and in desks. 

If you are outside your house or school, you may 
go into it. You put your knife into your pocket, your 
food into your mouth, your papers into your desk ; 
after they are put into those places, they stay in th^m. 
Do you understand? You may fall into a weU.'T If 
you fell in a well, you would fall down after yotf had 
been in the well. Invent a game in which ^^ in "and 
^^into" are used. 


Up means from a lower place to a higher. You 
walk tip a hill ; you row up a river. Upon is used as 
you would use on. A house stands upon a hill ; a book 
lies upon a table. 

Game 1 

Play a preposition game. Let the class divide 
itself into two groups; one, a noun-group, and the 
other, a preposition-group. Let the groups be 
brought into relation in various ways. 

Game 2 


Place prepositions in the following blanks. Be 
careful how you use ''in'' and ''into.'' 


A little red hen lived her house 

the woods. 

A fox and his mother lived a cave 

the other side — the forest. 

The foxes wanted the little red hen their 


Mr. Fox went her house. 

He hid a tree. 

The little red hen came her door. 

She gathered sticks her fire. 

♦She carried them her apron. 

The fox slipped the house. 

He hid the door. 

He spread his tail the floor. 

The little red hen was afraid the fox. 


She flew a perch the top 

the room. 

The fox whirled a circle. 

The little red hen grew dizzy and dropped 

her perch the floor. 

The fox put her his bag and hastened 

his home. 

He grew tired, so he lay the ground 

a rest. 

The little red hen cut a hole the bag and 

hopped it. 

She popped a stone the bag, and ran home. 

The fox carried the bag the stone 

it his mother. 


They held the bag the pot, and the big 

stone fell the water. 

The boiling water splashed them, and they 

were scalded death. 

The little red hen lived her house 

fear that time. 

Game 3 

Find the prepositional phrases in the follow- 
ing story : 


Once upon a time, a king sent Hercules for three 
golden apples that grew in the Garden of the Hes- 
perides. Hercules traveled through northern Africa 
across the desert. 

He arrived at the shore of the sea, where he saw 
a strange object that looked like a tuft of old seaweed. 
He knew that it was the ^^Old Man of the Sea,'' who 
had a strange power. He could change into 
various shapes. 

Hercules seized the ' ' Old Man, ' ' who turned into 
a lion, and then changed into a frightful monster. 
He soon took the form of a serpent, and later went 
through other transformations. But Hercules was 
so rough with him that he finally changed back into 
his own shape, and showed Hercules the way to the 
Garden of the Hesperides. 

Hercules journeyed onward, and saw the great 
giant Atlas towering against the sky. Hercules dis- 
covered that Atlas held the sky upon his shoulders, 
and that, at times, his head was lost in the clouds. 


Atlas said that he would go to the Garden for the 
apples, if Hercxiles would hold the sky for him. 
Hercules stood upon the 
loftiest mountain, and 
took the sky from the 
shoulders of the giant 

Atlas waded into the 
ocean. Its waters came 
tohiswaist. Then hewas 
lost to view. He arrived 
at the Garden, gathered 
abranch. of golden 
apples, and bore them in 
his enormous hands 
back to Hercules. He 
said, "I can carry them 
to the king in less time 
than you would take." 

Hercules saw that he might have the burden of the 
sky forever, so he answered, "The sky presses heavily 
upon me. Please hold it for a moment, while I place 
the lion's skin upon my shoulders." Atlas dropped 
the apples and held the sky for Hercules, who seized 
the apples and fled to the King's city. 

Poor Atlas roared with rage, and wept with dis- 
appointment. Lightning flashed from his eyes. He 
stormed with anger and frightened the people on 
the earth. 

Ages afterward, Perseus showed the head of 
Medusa to Atlas. He gazed at the Gorgon's Head, 
and was changed into stone. 


To-day you will find the Atlas Mountains 
in Africa. 


How are ine words in italics in the following sen- 
tences used ? Give reasons for your answers. 

The sailors leaped aboard the ship. 
^^Come aboard!'' shouted the commander. 

They moved about the decks. 

^*Tum about, and go in the opposite direction. 


The air-ship flew above the clouds. 

^^Stay above! don't go below!'' 

The submarine sank below the surface of the sea. 

Our sailors went across the sea to help the Allies. 
^ ^ Step across quickly ! " 

The soldiers marched along the road. 
' ' Oome along ! hurry ! " 

The men walked round the feld cautiously. 
They glanced round in search of enemies. 

Before the war, we had few soldiers. 
The men had never faced guns before. 

The Americans hid behind the rochs. 
The wounded man lagged behind. 

The French stood by the river. 
The brave men marched by. 


They looked down the stream. 
They dropped down quickly when they heard 
a noise. 

The soldier was left alone in the trench. 
*^Come in! Come in!^^ cried the kind woman. 

The nurse took the bandage off the arm. 
' ' Get off!'^ shouted the man. 

•His helmet was on his head. 
^*Pass on! Move on!'' 

We have friends over the seas. 
' ' Come over and help us ! ' ^ 

The ammunition was sent up the river. 

The soldier stood up and was shot instantly. 

Many words may be used both as prepositions and 
as adverbs. They are used as prepositions when they 
have OBJECTS following them; they are used as 
adverbs, when they belong to verbs. Think of other 
similar examples. Invent a game to play. 

The word ^Ho'^ is a preposition when used with a 
noun or pronoun as its object ; as, ^^ We go to school/' 
^*Give it to me." Give other similar examples. 

<<To^^ when used with a verb is called a part of the 
verb; as, to run, to walk, to leap, to dance, to shout. 
Give many other similar examples. 

**Two^^ is usually an adjective; as, ^^Two dogs are 
barking.'' It is sometimes used as a noun; as, ^^Ttvo 
will come. ' ' ^ ^ March in twos. '' 


*^Too" is an adverb; as, *^It is too bad/' "He 
eats too fast. ' ^ 

Invent a game in which you use "to/^ *^two/' and 
"too/^ Notice that the short word "to'' is the one 
that is always spoken most rapidly ; as, to eat, to sleep, 
to school, to town. The adverb "too'' is spoken more 
slowly ; as, " It is too cold. ' ' 

Use "to," "too," or "two" in the following sen- 
tences in place of the blanks : 

The boys were late go 

the train. 

The ■: melons were green be 

taken market. 

Write many similar sentences, until you make no 
mistakes in the use of "to," "too," and "two." 

Do not pronounce "to" as "tuh." Say, "I like 
to play ' ' ; not, ' ' I like tuh play. ' ' 



You have been on a trolley trip or a railroad jour- 
ney where you have seen tracks join or cross each 
other. You may have had to get off your train and 
wait for another at such a place called a junction. 

Name a junction that you know. What railroads 
connect there 1 

Many things besides tracks may join. Your 
teacher may say, "Henry, join these two pieces of 
string. Mary, join these two pieces of ribbon. WO- 
liam, draw two lines on the blackboard and then make 
them xmite or join." "Anna and George, join hands. 
Julia, join hands with Anna and George. Five other 



children may join hands with Anna, George, 
and Julia. ' ' 

How would you tell some one of the way in which 
you have made your circle? What word is used to 
connect the names of the children ? Is the word ^ ' and ' ' 
ever omitted where it might have been used ? When 
is it omitted? Why? 

Join the following words in groups of twos : 



















What word have you used to join the names of 
two objects? Have you joined similar objects, or 
those that are very unlike each other '^ Some objects, 
though very different, are used together. 

Suppose that your teacher chooses two of you 
children to draw a picture of a boat on the blackboard. 
How .will she give the permission ? She may say, 
' ' Anna and George may each draw a picture of a boat 
on the blackboard. ^ ' What word has she used to con- 
nect the two names ? 

Suppose that she wishes only one of the two 
children to erase what has been written. She may 
say, ^ * Anna or George may erase the drawings on the 
blackboard. Fred, do not help Anna or George. ^^ 
What word now connects their names ? 


If she says, ^^ George may draw a picture, hut 
Anna should watch him carefully, ' ' what word has she 
used to join the sentences about Anna and George? 

She might use the following sentences: *^ George 
may draw another boat, because he draws very accu- 
rately. George may tell Anna her mistakes, so she 
must listen attentiyely. Anna will learn, if she 
watches George work. Anna may try again, for she 
has been watching carefully. Anna has been told, 
yet she still makes the same mistakes. Anna is much 
younger than George. She will not give up, though 
she may fail many times. She will try many times ; 
then she will improve. '^ Make a list of the words 
used above to connect the sentences about Anna 
and George. 

In the following sentences about George, find the 
connecting words used to join two shorter sentences, 
and make them into a long sentence. Keep a list of 
the connecting words. 

George goes often to the shipyard while his father 
is at work there. 

He stays near his father until it is time to go home. 

He asks many questions about ship-building when 
his father is not too busy to answer. 

He will make ships himself, after he leaves school. 

Unless George grows careless, he will succeed. 

He has liked ships since he was a little child. 

Although a ship costs much money, he hopes to 
own one some day. 

He knows that he must work hard. 

As he is strong, he can work long. 


A ship to be used on tlie Great Lakes was not built 
of the best material ; nevertheless it was launched. 

There were flaws in the steel ; therefore the ship 
split in two and sank. 

Captains of ships must be very careful during 
foggy weather, lest they have collisions. 

The words and, or, nor, hut, because, so, if, for, yet, 
though,* than, then, while, when, until, after, unless, 
since, although,* that, as, nevertheless, therefore, and 
lest are called CONJUNCTIONS, because they are 
used to connect words and sentences. The word 
"conjunction" means " a joining together." 

Learn the conjunctions in the above list. 

Write a story ; use sentences that contain conjunc- 
tions. Be careful not to use "and" too frequently; 
use other conjunctions instead, if possible. 

Game 1 
Place conjunctions in the following blanks: 

Queen Drone Worker 

WOd bees hang honey-comb from the limbs of 
trees, bees on farms use beehives. 

In a hive are workers, drones, one 

Queen bee. 

* The Bimplified spelling of though is tho; of although ia allko. 


The workers gather honey from flowers, 

they gather only one kind of honey at a time. 

The Queen bee lays the eggs, 

she must be cared for 

fed on honey. 

The workers sting the drones to 

death, they would eat up the 

honey during the winter. 

Little grubs are hatched from 

eggs; they are young, they 

are fed on honey by the workers 

Kingbirds were formerly killed 

by farmers, they were 

. thought to eat honey-bees. 

They were called bee-martins, 
- were considered harmful, 

destructive birds. 

Scientists killed many king- 
birds examined the con- 
tents of their stomachs. 

They found the stomachs filled with drones 

other insects injurious to vegetation; now 

farmers protect kingbirds. 


Name the kind or class of words joined by "and" 
in the following sentences : 

The woods are quiet and beautiful. 
The trees are tall and stately. 
You and I are to go to the woods. 


Mother has put up a luncheon for you and me. 

We shall wade and play in the brook. 

Squirrels will leap and chatter. 

We must move slowly and quietly if we wish to 
see birds and squirrels. 

We should not be careless and wasteful. 

We find that nouns, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, 
and adverbs may be joined by the conjunction ^^and.'^ 

Suppose that you say : 

A flicker finds his food in tree-trunks. 

A flicker finds his food on the groimd. 

How may you join some parts of the above sen- 
tences and omit other parts, to save time and avoid 
repeating words ? Give similar sentences containing 
phrases to be joined. 

Write several sentences containing words joined 
by conjunctions. 

Write several sentences containing phrases j oined 
by conjunctions. 

Write several long sentences containing two 
shorter sentences that have been joined by 



Some conjunctions are used in pairs; such as, 
^^Give me neither poverty nor riches.'' 

You must either climb the cliff, or go back over the 
dangerous path. 


I have both seen and heard a great waterfall. 
Greenland is not only cold, hut also barren. 
Alaska is not so cold as Greenland. 
I feel as hungry as a wolf, and as cross as a bear. 
Whether I go or stay, I am satisfied. 

Game 2 
Find the conjunctions and pairs of conjunctions 
in the following story : 


Jenny Lind was a poor Swedish child. As she 
was an orphan, she had to live with an old woman in 

a forlorn home. The old woman was very poor, so 
Jenny had to do all that she could to help her. 

The child had a little kitten. It was her greatest 
joy in life, because she had nothing else to play with. 


She spent her time either in working hard or in play- 
ing with her pet. She loved to rock it and sing to it. 

People liked to hear her sing, for she had a very- 
sweet voice. One day, a kind lady, driving by Jenny ^s 
home, stopped her carriage and listened with pleasure 
to the child's song. She climbed up to Jenny's room 
and asked the old woman to let her have the little 
girl to educate. Jenny went to live with her new 
friend and received every advantage, for the lady was 
very rich. 

The child became not only a famous singer, but 
also a very wealthy woman. She became neither 
selfish nor vain. She used her money and her beauti- 
ful voice to help others less fortunate. People paid 
much money to hear her sing in concerts, yet she used 
to sing without pay to the sick and lonely, to 
cheer them. 

The Swedes honor Jenny Lind's memory and call 
her the ** Swedish Nightingale." 


You have learned that some words are used both as 
prepositions and as adverbs. Some words in your 
list of conjunctions are used in other ways than as 
conjunctions. In the following story, how are the 
words in italics used ? Give reasons for vour answers. 


Ben Baldwin and his three sisters once had a Shet- 
land pony that their father bought for them. They 
named her *^Bess." They had to watch her, for she 
was very tricky. 


She would not allow the girls to ride on her back 
if she could help it, for she hated the side-saddle. 
They often tried to mount her, hut she threw them 
off whenever she could. She liked to have no one 
hut Ben and one of his boy friends ride her. 

She was so clever that she could untie hfer baiter. 

She could unfasten the gate that led into her pasture. 
She often ran away, and poor Ben had to run after 
her. If she escaped from the barn at night, she fre- 
quently did not return until morning. She would not 
come back until she was hungry. 

Once she ran away and stayed so long that the 
children were very sad and anxious. There was deep 
snow on the ground, and the children feared that she 
would freeze and starve. They looked everywhere 
for her. "I wonder u-here she can be," they said 
sadly. '*Wkere else can we look?" 


That night, a neighbor went to his door before he 
started for bed. Something dark and shaggy ap- 
peared before his eyes. He thought that it was a bear 
from the Zoological Garden not far away, for occa- 
sionally an animal escaped from that place. 

He went in to get his pistol, for he intended to 
shoot it quickly. When he returned to the porch, the 
animal raised its head and neighed. 

^*It is that runaway pony !'^ he said. **I am glad 
that I didn't shoot. Her neigh saved her life.'' 

He caught her very easily, for she was hungry. 
He took her to the Baldwins' and told the children 
that her legs looked as short as a bear's, because she 
had sunk so deeply into the snow. They were very 
happy to see her again, you may be sure. 

They had new locks put on the stable-door and 
pasture-gate, and chained her to her stall after 
that night. 



Some words are used frequently which do not 
actually belong to the sentence^ but which are used 
merely to express strong feelings, such as pleasure, 
pain, surprise, annoyance, disgust, excitement, or 
fear. The following list is made up of such words : 



— X 







Pshaw ! 





Hurrah 1 





Bravo ! 


These words are generally used at the beginning 
of a sentence, as in the following : 
Ah ! that tastes good. 
Aha ! I Ve found it. 
Ahoy ! ship ahoy ! 
Alas ! you are too late. 
Alack ! alack ! no one remembers me. 
Bah ! that is disgusting. 
Bravo ! you did weU. 
Fie ! that is shameful. 
Ha 1 1 burned my finger. 
Ho ! who goes there ? 

8 113 


Hulloa ! how did you get here 1 

Hurrah ! we won the game. 

"Lot I am with you always." 

"O God, how wonderful are thy works!" 

Oh ! come quickly ! I am hurt ! 

Pooh! that isn't right. 

Pshaw! what made you do such a thing? 

Ugh ! how ugly that is I 

Whew I it is cold. 

Such words are called INTERJECTIONS, from 
two Latin words, " jacere," which means "to throw," 
and ' ' inter, ' ' which means ' ' between. ' ' Interjections 
are thrown into sentences, to express strong feeling. 
An exclamation mark ( !) is used after each inter- 
jection, or at the end of a sentence containing one. 

Make sentences of your own that shall contain the 
intei'jections in the list. Do you think of other 


words used as interjections? or of any groups of 
words or expressions used to express strong feeling ; 
such as, ^'O dear me!" •'Mercv on us!" 

Notice that ^^O" is used with a name; as, ^'O 
Mary ! " ^ ' O Father ! " ' ^ Oh " is used alone as an inter- 
jection; as, ^'Oh! that is wonderful." 

Invent a game in which interjections are used. 
Write a story of an exciting adventure, such as a 
storm at sea, or an accident to an aviator. Use numer- 
ous interjections. 


Some words that are usually nouns, adjectives^ 
verbs, or adverbs, are frequently used as interjec- 
tions, as in the following sentences : 

Your welcome warms my heart. 

'' Welcome! We are delighted to see you. 


She is a dear, loving child. 
' ' O dear! must I do that ? " 

Robert Southey wrote nonsense verses for his 

^^ Nonsense! you can do better than that." 

A steady pull brought the boat ashore. 
Steady the baby's footsteps. 
^^ Steady y boys, steady !^^ 

It is indeed true. 

''Indeed! 1 can hardly believe that story." 

The woman is forever complaining. 
* * Scotland forever !^^ 


Hark! is that thunder ? 

Hush! you'll wake the baby. 

Stop! Look! Listen! Railroad Crossing. 

^^Halt!^^ — The dust-brown ranks stood fast. 
^^Fire!^^ — out blazed the rifle-blast. 

^^ Forward! the Light Brigade ! 
Charge for the guns ! " he said. 

^^ March on! March on! all hearts resolved 
On liberty or death ! ' ' 

Exercise 1. — Tell how the words in italics are 
used in the following sentences : 

^^ Adieu, kind friends, adieu! 
' ' Marmion stopped to bid adieu. 

Many sad, brave farewells were said to the 

^^ Farewell! God be with you. ' ' 

^^Good-hye! Come again soon.'' 

The good-byes were spoken pleasantly. 

^^ Victory! on to victory !^^ 
It was a famous victory. 

Snow and hail fall from the clouds. 

We hail the new king. 

' ' All hail, O King, all hail!'' 

The silence was short. 

^^ Silence! All have spoken, none have agreed. 




Just spend a little time with me, 

To make a pleasant summary 

Of all the groups of words you Ve learned, 

While pages of this book you Ve turned. 

NOTIN'S are names of everjrthing. 
As garden, fiotver, river, spring; 
Of places, people, too, as well. 
Like Switzerland and William Tell. 

AD JECTmSS are a numerous tribe. 
That number, point out, and describe. 
One, two, three, four; first, third; this, that; 
Good, lovely, strong, brave, slender, fat. 

PRONOUNS in place of nouns you use : 
Who, which and what, that, whom and whose; 
I, my and mine; we, our, us, me; 
It, they, their, them; you, yours; he, she. 

Next come the VERBS; they're active, strong, — 
They're doing something all day long. 
They shout, sing, walk, run, play, and leap; 
At times they stand, sit, lie, and sleep. 

How things are done some ADVERBS tell, 
As nobly, bravely, swiftly, well; 
How much or little, too ; when, where: ' 
As, much, more, most; notv, then; here, there. 


Though PREPOSITIONS oft are smaU, 
They're nmneroiis and useful ; all 
Have objects joined to verb or noun; 
They're words like hy, in, on, up, dotvn. 

CONJUNCTIONS, too, join when they may, 

But in a very different way ; 

And, hut, or, nor, for, yet, so, though 

Are found in use where'er you go. 

Now last of all, surprise to show. 
Disgust or pleasure, pain or woe. 
Come INTERJECTIONS— o/^/ and ah! 
Hulloa! pooh! pshaw! whew! ha! hurrah! 

These groups of words are ^^ Parts of Speech;" 
A different use you Ve found for each. 
Use all the ''parts" without mistake. 
And perfect sentences you'll make. 

Commit the above stanzas to memory. 



1. What part of speech is each word in the fol- 
lowing story ? 


Once, in a far-off country, there lived a little girl 
named Coralie. She was a pretty child, with a bright 
mind and many good qualities, but she had one very 
bad fault. She did not tell the truth — she did not 
really seem to know what the truth was. Manj^ times 
she told falsehoods when the truth would have served 
her better. She told so many fantastic tales that the 
day came when no one believed a word that she said. 

Her anxious parents, in despair, decided to take 
her to the enchanter Merlin, who often cured liars of 
their bad habit. He lived in a wonderful glass palace 
in a distant land. 

As Coralie and her parents approached his palace, 
they noticed that the windows were wide open, and 
that servants were burning vinegar. They were told 
that the enchanter was always made ill when a liar 
approached, and that they were trying to prevent a 
"bad attack. 

When Merlin felt able to see them, he sent for the 
unhappy father and mother and their trembling little 





girl. He looked gravely at Coralie and said, ^'You 
are one of the greatest liars in the whole world; you 
have made me very uncomfortable. I shall give you 
something to make you remember to speak the truth/' 
He then placed a wonderful necklace of amethysts 
around the child's neck, saying, ''Do not take this 
necklace off for a whole year, when you must return 
it to me. Remember, you must not even unfasten 
the clasp." He then told the family to return to 
their home. 

Coralie was very happy and went to school the 
next day with pride in her heart. Her schoolmates 
crowded about her. They asked, ''Why have you 
not been at school ? Where did you get that beauti- 
ful necklace?" 

Coralie replied, "I have been ill. My father and 
mother wished to please me, so they bought me this 
lovely necklace for a gift. ' ' 

"Oh, oh!" cried the girls. "Look at the ame- 
thysts ! They look like cheap topazes now !" And to 
Coralie 's dismay, instead of beautiful purple gems, 
she saw ugly yellow stones. 

"Thev took me to the enchanter Merlin's," Cor- 
alie replied. The necklace changed to its original 
purple color, to Coralie 's great relief. But she added, 
' ' Merlin sent a wonderful carriage to meet us. It had 
pink satin cushions and was drawn by six white 
horses. There were three powdered footmen and a 
negro coachman. Merlin gave us a delicious feast. 
Twelve servants waited on us, and " 

"Look, look!" exclaimed the girls. "Your neck- 
lace has grown longer at every word you have 
spoken." They shouted with laughter and added, 
"You are stretching the truth." 

"We went on foot," said Coralie, hanging her 
head, "and Merlin gave me nothing but this neck- 

lace." The necklace, which had stretched until it 
reached the floor, then resumed its original length. 

"What did Merlin say to you?" asked the girls. 
"Nothing," answered Coralie. Then she gave a cry 
of pain, for the necklace had grown so tight that she 
was nearly choked to death. "You are keeping back 
part of the truth," exclaimed the girls. With diffi- 
culty, Coralie gasped out, "He said I was one of the 
greatest liars in the world. That is why he gave me 
the necklace." The necklace then stretched to its 
original length. 



Why don't you take it off ?'' inquired the girls. 
Coralie made no reply. What do you think then hap- 
pened ? The stones in that dreadful necklace danced 
up and down on Coralie 's neck till her teeth 
fairly chattered. 

' ' There is something you have not told us, ' ' said 
the girls. In grief and confusion Coralie burst into 
tears. '* Merlin said I must not take it off/' she an- 
swered. ' ' Oh, dear, ' ' she cried, ' ' what shall I ' do ? ' ' 

Her schoolmates, who were really kind girls, 
promised to help her. They agreed not to laugh at 
her or to tease her, but to insist that every sentence 
she uttered was the strict truth. 

She tried so hard to improve that long before the 
year had passed. Merlin sent a messenger for the 
necklace to give to some other person who did not 
tell the truth. Coralie learned that she was far hap- 
pier when trusted by her parents and friends, and 
never afterwards was known to tell a falsehood. 

2. What part of speech is each word in the fol- 
lowing story? 


Once upon a time there lived a sweet little girl who 
had been christened Louise ; but no one ever called her 
anything but ''Miss Careless,'' for a more untidy, 
careless little girl never lived. She was very lovable 
and had many excellent traits, but her carelessness 
and slovenliness made so much trouble for others 
that it was hard for her family and friends to over- 
look so serious a fault. 


Her parents did everything in their power to cure 
her, but she paid no heed to what they said. Her 
brother Paul was almost as disorderly as she ; he said 
that it was all nonsense to be * ' fussy and particular. ' ' 
He thought it manly not to be orderly, and of course 
Miss Careless agreed with him. 

The fairy Order did not like the children and al- 
ways avoided going into their rooms if she could. One 
morning she opened Miss Careless 's door at a very 
late hour. She was horrified to find the child still in 
bed, and shocked to see th^t her room was in frightful 
disorder. A lovely new dress lay in a heap on a chair ; 
a beautiful velvet hat rested on top of the water- 
pitcher ; one glove lay upon the mantel, while another 
lay upon the fender; shoes, slippers, and overshoes 
were piled under the bed; while ribbons, handker- 
chiefs, collars, and underwear were tossed into open 
bureau drawers in untidy heaps. 

' ' Such a disorderly room ! ' ' scolded the fairy. ^ ' It 
is a pig-sty, not a little lady's room. Are you not 
ashamed of yourself ? ' ' 

^' Why should I be ?'' answered the lazy little girl. 
''It makes no difference where I put my things; I 
can always find them." ''That is not true," replied 
the fairy. ' ' You forget how often your mother and the 
maid find them for you. I'll teach you to see 
whether it makes no difference where you lay 
your belongings. ' ' She then waved her wand angrily 
and disappeared. 

In a moment, a strange thing happened. The little 
girl's body, which had been lying comfortably in bed. 



flew into pieces and scattered all over the room. Her 
head sought her hat on the top of the water-pitcher ; 
her hands flew to find her gloves; her feet and legs 
ran to get into her shoes, and her body crept inside 
her dress on the chair. 

Miss Careless was much frightened, and cried so 


loudly that her brother ran upstairs to see what was 
wrong. He was speechless when he saw what 
had happened. 

"Come quickly, Paul," called the head from the 
water-pitcher, "and put me where I belong." "And 
help me, please," groaned the body. "The corner of 
this chair is hurting me terribly." The arms and legs 
cried out, too, and Paul hastened to gather them up 
and put them together. He stood up the body, placed 


the head upon it, and then fastened on the arms and 
legs. To his horror, he found that he had put the 
head on crooked. It was so twisted that it hurt his 
sister, and she began to cry. When she tried to wipe 
away her tears, she found that he had put a foot and 
leg where her right hand and arm should have been, 
and a hand and arm where her left leg and foot 
should have been ! 

Their screams brought their parents and the ser- 
vants to the spot. All stood in the doorway too dis- 
tressed to move, until the father cried out, ^'Some- 
body go for a doctor!'' At that moment the fairy 
Order appeared. 

''Do you still think,'' she said to the frightened 
children, "that it makes no difference where you put 
your things ? " " No, no, ' ' answered Paul and Louise, 
"it makes a great deal of difference. We are very 
sorry for our carelessness." 

The fairy waved her wand. Miss Careless felt 
her head turn round on her shoulders till it was quite 
straight. Her foot and hand scrambled to get into 
their proper places. The children smiled gratefully. 

At another wave of her wand, every article in the 
rooan ran hastily to the drawer or box in which it 
belonged. The fairy told the things to help Louise 
keep them in order until she returned. 

The children tried very hard to overcome their 
fault, and succeeded so well that after a time the fairy 
called them Master Thoughtful and Misis Careful. 

When Louise grew up, the fairy married her to a 
prince who was looking for a very neat wife to make 


his palace beautiful and charming ; and the two young 
people lived happily together ever afterward. 

3. What part of speech is each word in the fol- 
lowing story 1 


Once upon a time there was a young girl named 
Fanny, who never knew what time it was. 

Fanny 's mother was dead. Fanny lived with her 
father, who loved her so dearly that he could not bear 
to find fault with her, though he was often annoyed 
by her impunctuality. 

The coachman, who had to wait many hours every 
week for her, christened her Miss Tardy. The name 
clung to her. 

Fanny's godmother, the fairy Punctuality, also 
loved her devotedlv, but disliked her child's .bad habit 
very much. She once said, ''Fanny, do you realize 
that you are very selfish? You think only of your 
own comfort — of what you wish to do. You do not 
care how much time you make others waste." 

One day the fairy was invited to lunch with 
Fanny. She waited a whole hour before the young 
lady appeared. Fanny had been out driving and 
didn't hasten home. When she arrived, she took her 
time to change her dress and shoes. It did not occur 
to her that it was impolite to keep her godmother 
waiting so long. 

They had a pleasant time together, though the 
luncheon was not very good because of the long delay. 


Before the fairy rose to go, Fanny's father drove 
hastily to the door. He was indignant to find that 
Fanny was not dressed to go with him to Prince Ran- 
dolph 's reception, where she was to sing at 
five o'clock, 

Fanny made excuses, but her father was so vexed 
that the godmother said, "I shall help you this time." 
She passed her hand over Fanny's dress and trans- 

formed it into an elegant reception gown. She then 
threw about the girl's neck a beautiful gold chain, 
at the end of which hung an exquisite little enameled 
watch set with pearls. 

'*Here, child," she said, "is something to aid your 
bad memory. This watch will never allow you to 
forget the time again." She then told Fanny to go 
with her father. 

When they arrived at the Prince's mansion, 


Fanny went out into its lovely garden with several 
ladies. ^'Conie back into the house at five o'clock/' 
whispered her father. **You are to sing first. Do 
not be late." 

Fanny enjoyed the garden so much that she said, 
''I shall not go into the house at five o'clock." As 
soon as the clock struck five, however, her watch 
began to give a loud ''Tick, tick, tick, tick," which 
continued until she was forced to obey its warning. 
She sang very sweetly and pleased every one. 

Before Fanny went to bed that night, she prom- 
ised her father to meet him at nine o'clock the next 
morning. She had an appointment with the dress- 
maker at ten o 'clock. 

She lay in bed until her watch again began to tick 
loudly. It persisted until Fanny sprang from her 
bed in disgust and dressed hastily to keep her ap- 
pointment with her father. He told her that he 
intended to buy her a beautiful present. 

They drove to a fine shop. It took Fanny so long 
to select her gift that the clock struck ten. ''The 
dressmaker can wait, ' ' said Fanny. ' ' Tick, tick, tick, 
TICK ! ' ' warned the watch. 

"Here, father," said Fanny, "put this tiresome 
watch into your pocket." Her father did so and 
walked toward the door of the shop. "Ting, ting, 
TING, TING ! ' ' came from his pocket. 

Every one looked up to see what made the noise. 
Fanny was so mortified that she hastily finished her 
purchase and left the shop for the dressmaker's estab- 
lishment. There she became so interested that for a 


time she forgot a promise to go to luncheon with a 
girl friend. When she remembered her promise, she 
thought, *^I don't care if I am late. I intend to look 
at all of these pretty things the dressmaker has to 
show me.'' 

Then she remembered her watch. *' Please take 
this watch and hide it in the closet. ' ' The dressmaker 
did as she was asked, and continued to show Fanny 
laces and silks. 

^'Ding-dong! ding-dong!" came from the closet. 
The poor dressmaker was frightened and cried out, 
^'Oh, Miss Fanny! what is the matter? Can there be 
a robber in the closet?" 

^'It is nothing," answered Fanny. ^^Go on; unroll 
that silk." 

'^ Ding-dong! ding-dong!" came from the closet. 
The dressmaker was half dead with fright until 
Fanny went to the closet, picked up the watch, 
and angrily hastened to keep her appointment 
for luncheon. 

She had a pleasant time at the luncheon with her 
friend. When she returned home she found a new 
book that she wished to read. She flung herself down 
in a chair to enjoy it, when she remembered that she 
had told her old servant, Valentine, to come to see her 
at four o'clock. It was then a quarter before the hour. 
She rang for her maid, Jenny. 

^^Tell Valentine I am not at home," she lied. **0h, 
Miss," answered Jenny, *^ Valentine is in great 
trouble. He has been here twice to see you." ^'I 
don't care ; I don't wish to be bothered now. Tell him 



to come to-morrow at four o'clock. — Stop, take this 
watch, and put it down cellar, ' ' she added. 

Poor Valentine came, and he wiped away a tear 
when he heard that again Miss Fanny had refused 
to see him. He turned to leave the house, when 
^^BANG! BANG! BANG! BANG!" sounded from 
the cellar like rapid shots from a pistol. 

The terrified servants began to scream, all but 
Jenny, who ran to her mistress. ^'What is it. Miss 
Fanny, what is it ? " she cried. ^ ^ That watch my god- 
mother gave me,'' answered Fanny, closing her book. 
^^Go and get it and send Valentine to me." 

The watch banged until Jenny picked it up and 
told Valentine that Miss Fanny would see him. 
Fanny was kind to him, heard his story, gave him a 
good dinner and money to buy food and medicine for 
his sick boy, and promised him some work. 

After he had gone, Fanny began to dress for a 
wx>nderful party or ball to which she had looked for- 
ward with pleasure for a long time. Just as she was 
leaving the house, her dear old nurse, whom she had 
not seen for many years, appeared and begged to see 
her. The old woman was so sad to know that she 
could not visit with her beloved child, that Fanny 
promised to return home at midnight to see her. 

As she drove to the ball, Fanny told the coachman 
to stop beside a stone wall. She took off her watch 
and threw it over the wall into a ditch. ^*Now I am 
free," she said. ^^That hateful thing won't trouble 
me any longer ." 


She had a delightful time at the dance and when 
twelve o'clock came she was not ready to go home. 
So she stayed on a few minutes longer. 

Suddenly every one heard a frightful noise like 
peals of thunder, or the roar of a cannon. ^^BOOM ! 
BOOM ! BOOM ! BOOM ! " The band stopped short. 
The girls stood still with frightened faces ; the young 
men rushed out to see what was the trouble. 

The unhappy Fanny knew what made the noise, 
so she rushed bareheaded toward the place where her 
watch lay. A fireman, who had come out to see if 
there had been an explosion, turned his light toward 
Fanny. ' ' Oh, it is Miss Tardy ; she has lost the time 
and is rimning to find it, ' ' he said laughingly. 

She reached the wall, snatched up the watch, and, 
in a rage, raised her hand to dash it to pieces, when 
her godmother suddenly appeared. ^^You can never 
succeed in destroying my gift, ' ' she said. ^ ^ The only 
thing to do is to obey. When you have learned to 
keep your word, to be prompt and thoughtful of the 
comfort of others, I shall take away the watch — ^not 
a moment sooner.'' Fanny hung her head and re- 
turned home to keep her promise to her old nurse. 

She wore the watch only a short time, for she soon 
discovered that she carried within herself a little 
watch called CONSCIENCE, which reminded her 
when she was selfish and thoughtless of others, and 
told her when she was doing wrong. 

She soon found that the more she did for others 
and the less she thought of herself, the happier her 
life became. 


4. What part of speech is each word in the fol- 
lowing story? 


There was once a little boy named Leon, who al- 
ways stood at the head of his class. He was so proud 
of his marks that he became very conceited and dis- 
agreeable. He loved to show off what he knew arid 
make others feel ignorant and uncomfortable. 

A little girl named Rose, who lived near him, 
often came to play with him. She was not a very 
good student, but she was a lovely child — ^kind, gentle, 
loving, and obedient. 

Leon looked down on her because she did not have 
high marks and could not answer all the questions 
that he asked her in arithmetic, history, grammar, 
and geography. He also made fun of her because she 
was a poor speller. 

One day he asked her whether she could change a 
common fraction to a decimal ; whether she knew the 
date when Rome was founded ; whether she could tell 
the difference between a preposition and a conjunc- 
tion, and could name all the states in the Mississippi 
Valley. Rose laughed and said, ^^You know very 
well that we have not studied those things yet in 
oui" grade." 

She had brought a lovely new book to show Leon. 
He glanced at it and said, ^^I like the pictures, but 
the stories are too childish for me. I think that I 
shall not play with you any longer. We do not care 
for the same things now, and what you like to talk 


about bores me. ^ ^ Rose began to cry. She took her 
book and started to go home, when her godmother, 
the fairy Modesty, appeared. 

The fairy was very angry with Leon for his un- 
kind words to Rose, and decided that such a conceited 
little prig as he needed a lesson. She determined to 
take him on a journey, to teach him a few things. 

She turned to Rose and said, ^^So you know noth- 
ing, my dear child. Can you tell me what we must 
do to lead a good lif e ?'^ 

^^That is not a hard question,'' answered Rose. 
^^We must obey God, and be kind, like Him, to 

^^That is knowing something, but not enough to 
make you a fit companion for so learned a boy as 
Leon. What he needs is the society of scholars and 
authors. Come with me, Leon." 

She took him by the hand and transported him to 
a wonderful place — an observatory, where they saw 
a great telescope, and an astronomer seated at a table 
covered with books and papers. 

This man was truly a great scholar. He had taken 
the measurements of the globe ; he had calculated how 
long it took light to come to the earth from the near- 
est star ; he had weighed the sun and moon, and had 
accomplished many other wonderful things. 

The astronomer greeted the fairy Modesty like an 
old acquaintance. She told him that she had brought 
another scholar to see him. The great man looked 
interested. ^^A scholar at your age," he said, ^^how 
very remarkable!" 


He then asked Leon to help him find a comet that 
seemed to be lost in space. Leon knew nothing about 
comets and declined to assist. 

The scholar then talked to him about optics, acous- 
tics, hydrostatics, and logarithms. Leon had never 
even heard of them. He hung his head in embar- 

rassment, and then said, "I do not know those stupid 
things, but I can change a common fraction 
to a decimal." 

The learned man looked at the fairy Modesty in 
surprise. She hastily said, "Master, I know a little 
girl who says that to lead a good life we must obey 
God, and be kind, like Him, to every one. Do you 
know any more about it than she does?" He replied, 


' ' No one knows any more about it than that. The dear 
child has said all there is to say. ' ' 

^^Conie, Leon/' said the fairy, ^4et us go else- 
where. ' ' And she led the boy away. 

They soon found themselves in a house where a 
great historian lived. The entire house was filled 
with books. They found the historian in the Roman- 
history room. 

He greeted his callers cordially. When the f airj' 
told him that she had brought a little boy to see him 
who knew when Rome was founded, he said, ^ ^ I am 
very glad. Are you quite sure of the date?" ^*0h, 
yes," answered Leon. ^^I recited it yesterday 
in school." 

^^You are more learned than I," replied the his- 
torian. ^*I am not sure of it. Most of the writers 
of these books are likewise in doubt. They cannot 
find proofs. ' ' 

Leon looked amazed. The fairy then said, ^* Mas- 
ter, I know a little girl who says that to lead a good 
life we must obey God, and be kind, like Him, to 
every one. Do you doubt what she says?" ^^No," 
replied the historian. ^^One may doubt the truth of 
many things, but never of that. ' ' 

Leon felt very much embarrassed and gladly 
hastened away with the fairy to another house, the 
home of a writer who knew a good deal about gram- 
mar and composition. She, too, welcomed the fairy 
and Leon. 

She talked about things that he could not under- 
stand at all, and seemed surprised, because the fairy 


had introduced him as a granunarian. He boldly 
recited some of the definitions which he knew. She 
said, ^^Some of those you could dispense with. The 
question is, do you understand them and know how 
to use what you have learned?" 

The fairy then told her what Rose knew and asked 
whether people could get on without that knowledge. 
**Not very well,'^ she replied. ^^Some people try to 
do so, but they make sad work of their lives. What 
she says is necessary for everybody to know. ' ' 

Leon knew not which way to turn and begged to 
go home. ' ' Not yet, ' ' said the fairy. 

The boy suddenly found himself in an enormous 
room, with large maps on its walls. He recognized 
the outlines of the continents, but could riot find a 
single division or country that looked familiar. 

He was told that he was in Africa, in one of the 
finest schools of that very civilized country. He 
noticed that the children all had white faces. 

**I thought that the people of Africa were black,'' 
said Leon, ^ ^ and that it was an uncivilized country. ' ' 
*^That was true long ago," replied the fairy. ^^Now 
things are changed. I am showing you the world as 
it will be two thousand years from now. ' ' 

The children began to recite. They spoke English, 
but the names of places were all different from those 
which Leon knew. He looked puzzled. 

The fairy asked the teacher whether the pupils 
learned the names of the states of the Mississippi 
Valley. ^^Oh, no,'' replied the teacher. ^^ There are 
no such states now. I remember an old geography 


that contained maps and a description of them, and 
a later book that told of their destruction by an earth- 
quake in 2500 A.D. Both books were full of errors, 
and neither one of them said much about Africa. ' ' 

*^Can you tell me, my child," the fairy asked a 
little girl, what we must do to lead a good life ? ' ^ ^ ^ We 
must try to obey God, ' ' answered the child, ' ' and be 
kind to everyone. ' ' When she had finished reciting, 
Leon suddenly found himself in the room with Rose. 

^*Do you not think," asked the fairy, ^Hhat her 
knowledge is worth as much as yours ? You have seen 
the wise bow before it; you know that it does not 
change, while much other learning does. What she 
knows will be true two thousand years from now." 

*^Then I do not need to take so much trouble in 
school, if everything I learn changes," said Leon, 
crossly. ^*0h, yes," answered the fairy, ^^ you must 
study your lessons faithfully, and help to find out 
more truths about this wonderful world in which you 
live. Only do not be vain of the little knowledge that 
you may gain. The wiser men are, the more they 
realize how much there is that they can never hope to 
know. The greater they are, the more modest they 
grow. Will you try to be like them ? " 

Leon promised that he would. 

Note. — The preceding stories, ^^The Necklace of 
Truth," ^^Miss Careless," '^Miss Tardy," and ''The 
Great Scholar," are adapted from Jean Mace's Fairy 
Tales, published by Harper & Brothers, and are used 
with the kind permission of the publishers. 




Haye you ever read the story called ^^ Diamonds 
and Toads ? ' ' If yon have, you will remember that a 
fairy godmother rewarded a kind and lovely princess 
by causing diamonds and pearls to fall from her lips, 
while the fairy punished the child's hateful, jealous 
sister by causing ugly snakes and toads to leap from 
her mouth whenever she spoke. 

I am sure that you understand the meaning of the 
story. The diamonds and pearls represented the 
kind words that brought sweetness into the lives of 
those living with the lovely princess, while the ugly 
snakes and toads resembled the hateful words that 
brought unhappiness to those scolded by the un- 
kind sister. 

I feel sure that you must have read another story 
called ^^ Pandora's Box.'' If you have, you remem- 
ber how naughty Pandora, through disobedience and 
curiosity, opened a box that had been entrusted to 
her. Out of it flew a swarm of tiny winged crea- 
tures that stung her and all her young playmates. 
One beautiful little sprite named '^Hope" escaped 
from the box later. She flew about, bringing light, 
hope, comfort, and joy wherever she went. 



Let us make up a story of our own. Each one of 
you owns a box in which you keep your thoughts. 
Do you know its name I It has two bright windows 
out of which those thoughts 
shine — good, pure thoughts, or 
bad, ugly thoughts. It has a 
door that opens to let those 
thoughts fly away. It lies with 
you whether you will send them 
out into the world as foul, 
ugly, harmful things ; as maimed, 
imperfect creatures; or as 
"winged words of beauty." 

Which is better, to have 
good thoughts fly away with 
broken wings, or to have bad 
thoughts seem fair on the out- 
side and be impure within f It 
is quite possible, however, to 
have them both good and beauti- 
ful at the same time. 

Let us see how the 
winged sprites look as they 
fly away. Bad words look 
black; coarse, slang words 
look gray; incorrect words 
have broken wings. Do you 
think that you could mend 
those wings and make them 
bright and beautiful? 
Woxdd you like to try? 



I done it. 

I haven't did it. 

I seen it. 

I haven't saw it. 

I haven't went. 

They would a went. 

Lay down, Rover ! 

Rover laid down. 

Set down. 

I set on the chair. 

I sat the table. 

I brung you six pebbles. 

I drawed a picture. 

I haven 't wrote my story. 

We come back quick. 

She ain't came yet. 

My teacher learned me how. 

We teached the baby. 

Baby et a green apple. 

Baby got sick on us. 

He was awful sick. 

He was sick abed. 

He hasn't ate much since. 

Look at what I done. 

We was there. 

You was hungry. 

There's two boys. 

There's three kittens. 

Five times two is ten. 


If I was yon, I 'd go. 

I feel good to-day. 

I slept good. 

I can 't work good to-day. 

Say, listen ! 

Say, did you see that ? 

Are they any school to-day? 

I stayed to home. 

Up to John 's, they have a dog. 

They was a watch-dog in the house. 

Where shall I bring it to ? 

Who did you get it from ? 

Who did you give it to ? 

I says to my mother, ^^I'll come/' 

My father he said I could do it. 

I hat to go. 

I just hattle laff. 

I can't go without I Ve finished. 

I got two pair of shoes. 

Mother bought two bushel of apples. 

I gotta go. 

I 'm pleased to meet you. 

I'm most ready. 

The man give me a quarter. . 

Gimme a dime. 

Lemme see. 

Leave it lay. 

Leave me do it. 

I ain't goin'. 

I ain't done nothin'. 

I never did nothin'. 


I ain't got no pencil. 

I hain't got none left 

My pencil is broke. 

My paper is tore. 

My pants is tore. 

I kin ketch you. 

Can I get a drink ? 

I got it off Mary. 

She don't work. 

I sure will do it. 

Will you help me ? I sure will. 

Do it like I do. 

The baby looks like I do. 

Do you want on ? 

Do you want off ? 

He is on bed. 

I must of lost it. 

I ask her to come. 

It's me. 

It's. him. 

It's her. 

It's them. 

Me and you can go. 

Give it to me and her. 

She gave it to Mary and I. 

She gave it to John and myself. 

Us girls want it. 

Them apples are mine. 

The plums are yourn. 

The cherries are ourn. 

They hurt theirselves. 


I can jump as high as him. 

You hadn't ought to do it. 

You better hadn't do it. 

Where is it at? 

That's all the farther I can go. 

I 'm goan to do it. 

I can't wait on you any longer. 

Two couple went by. 

I don't like those kind of apples. 

These kind are good. 

Neither John nor Mary are here. 

Ma and Pa they're coming. 

I only ate two cookies. 


I did it. 

I haven't done it. 

I saw it. 

I haven't seen it. 

I haven't gone. 

They would have gone. 

Lie down, Rover 1 

Rover lay down. 

Sit down. 

I sat on the chair. 

I set the table. 

I brought you six pebbles. 

I drew a picture. 

I haven 't written my story. 

We came back quickly. 



She hasn't come yet. 

My teacher taught me how. 

We taught the baby. 

Baby ate a green apple. 

It made baby sick. 

He was very sick. 

He was sick in bed. 

He hasn't eaten much since. 

Look at what I did. 

We were there. 

You were hungry. 

There are two boys. 

There are three kittens. 

Five times two are ten. 

If I were you, I 'd go. 

I feel well to-day. 

I slept well. 

I can't work well to-day. 

Listen to me 1 

Did you see that ? 

Is there any school to-day ? 

I stayed at home. 

Up at John's, they have a dog. 

There was a watch-dog in the house. 

Where shall I take it? 

From whom did you get it ? 

To whom did you give it? 

I said to my mother, ^ ^ I '11 come. 

My father said I could do it. 

I had to go. 

I just had to laugh. 



I can't go unless I have finished. . 
I have two pairs of shoes. 
Mother bought two bushels of apples. 
I must go. 

I am glad to meet you. 
I am almost ready. 
The man gave me a quarter. 
Give me a dime. 
Let me see. 
Let it lie. 
Let me do it. 
I am not going. 

I haven't done anything. I have done nothing. 
I never did anything. 
I have no pencil. 
I have none left. 
My pencil is broken. 
My paper is torn. 
My trousers are torn. 
I can catch you. 
May I get a drink ? 
I got it from Mary. 
She doesn't work. 
I surely will do it. 
Will you help me ? I surely will. 
Do it as I do. 
The baby looks like me. 
Do you wish to get on ? 
Do you wish to get off ? 
He is on the bed. 
I must have lost it. 



I asked her to come. 
It is I. 
It is he. 
It is she. 
It is they. 

You and I may go. 
Give it to her and to me. 
She gave it to Mary and me. 
She gave it to John and me. 
We girls want it. 
Those apples are mine. 
The plums are yours. 
The cherries are ours. 
They hurt themselves. 
I can jump as high as he. 
You oughtn't to do it. 
You'd better not do it. 
Where is it? 

That's as far as I can go. 
I am going to do it. 
I can't wait for you any longer. 
Two couples went by. 
I don't like that kind of apple. 
This kind is good. 
Neither John nor Mary is here. 
Mother and Father are coming. 
I ate only two cookies. 

Say ^^ YES" and ^^NO." Do NOT say, ^^Yay-ah," 
Yep," ^^Uh-huh," ^^Sure," ^^Nope," ^^Naw," and 
*^Say," for they are vulgar expressions. Do not say 
Did ja/^ for *^Did you^^ — a common mistake. 





There should be daily games, at home and at 
school, to give practice in mending your English. 
Below, you will find a list of questions that you may 
ask ; watch to see how correctly the answers, are given. 

Have you noticed any other incorrect expressions 
used at home or at school ? If so, try to mend them. 


What did you see on your way to school ? ^ 
I saw . 

What have you seen in a factory ? 

I have seen . 

Where did you go yesterday ? 

I went . 

Where have you gone of tenest ? 

I have gone . 

What did you eat for breakfast ? 

I ate . 

What have you eaten when camping ? 

I have eaten . 

What did you throw ? 

I threw . 

What have you thrown me ? 

I have thrown . 

When did you come? 

I came — . 

Why have you come ? 

I have come . 

What did you bring me ? 


I brought you . 

What did you give me ? 

I gave you . 

What did you do ? 

I did . 

What have you done ? 

I have done . 

What did you teach your dog ? 

I taught my dog . 

What doesn't a dog like ? 
A dog doesn't like 

What doesn 't a cat like ? 

A cat doesnH like . 

What does your father let you do? 

He lets me . 

Where did you stay last night ? 

I stayed at . 

Where will you go to-day ? 

I shall go up to . 

How do you feel to-day ? 

I feel — well. 

How did you sleep ? 

I slept well. 

How did you work yesterday ? 

I worked well. 

What have you in your desk ? 

I have . 

What have you in your pocket ? 

I have . 

What do you do when tired ? 
I sit — , and I lie — . 


How do you feel when you hurt some one ? 

I feel . 

How many boys are in the first row ? 

There are . 

What did you say to your playmate ? 

I said . 

What did you ask your mother ? 

I asked . 

Give other questions to answer. 

Note. — Most educators agree that it is bad peda- 
gogy to place incorrect forms of speech before chil- 
dren. It is the author's experience that when 
incorrect forms have once been learned, it is neces- 
sary to direct pupils' attention to them by stimulating 
their imaginations, so that their ears and eyes may 
become sensitive. This explains the method of pro- 
cedure in the preceding chapter. 




Were you ever lost in the woods ? If so, you will 
remember how dazed and frightened you were, espe- 
ciallv if it chanced to be late in the afternoon, and 
you feared that you miglit be obliged to spend the 
night alone in the woods. 

You will remember your joy at suddenly coming 
upon a path where there was a sign ^1^=^ pointing 
toward a road marked with a name that you knew. 
Your troubles then vanished. 

Did you ever lose your way in a strange city? If 
so, you were probably as confused and frightened as 
when you were lost in the forest, until you saw a 
policeman and asked him how to find the street that 
you sought. He perhaps directed your attention to 
signs on lamp-posts, that told you the names of the 
various streets, and guided you safely out of 
your difficulties. 

When a little child begins to read, he is as confused 
at seeing msiJiy words together on a page, as you would 
be at beholding countless trees in a pathless woods, 
or numerous busy streets in an unfamiliar city. He 
soon learns, however, that there are several guide- 




posts or signs that help him to find the meaning of 
what he reads. 

Many traffic policemen in our cities use signs that 






The pages in books have 
many such signs. Every new sentence has ia sign that 

It is the Si^^ with which it 



begins. Notice the capital letter at the beginning of 
every sentence in this chapter. 

Every sentence has also a sign that says 


It is usually a dot called a 


Find periods 

at the ends of the sentences in this chapter ; in qther 
chapters of this book ; in other books. 

What kind of sign is at the end of this sentence ? 
of the first sentence of this chapter ? of the first sen- 
tence of the third paragraph? Because evety such 

sign p] marks the end of a question, it is called a 

or sometimes an interrogation point. 


An interrogation is a question. 
One other sign says 


It is the mark 

used at the end of a sentence that shows strong feel- 
ing; such as, *^Look out, or you will be run over!'' 

The sign |T] is called an 



it is used after an exclamation, which is an expres- 
sion showing strong feeling in the person using it. 



Exclamation marks are frequently called exclama- 
tion points. 

Write sentences in which periods must be used at 
the end. Write others in which question marks must 
be used. Write others in which exclamation marks 
must be used. Begin every sentence with a capital. 

In the following story, place capitals and periods 
where they belong : 


once upon a time there was a pretty little girl 
named Goldielocks one day she started out for a walk 
in the woods she came to a house in the woods the 

door of the house was open she 

knocked several times but no one 

^Xfc 1^^^^ N answered she walked into the 

'O Im'^^^ house and looked around she saw 

three bowls of soup on a table her 
walk had made her very hungry 
so she thought that she would 
like to eat the soup she did not 
stop to think that it was not hers 
to eat she tasted the soup in the first bowl but it 
was so hot that it burned her mouth she tasted the 
soup in the second bowl but it was so salty that 
she did not like it she tasted the soup in the third 
bowl and as it was just to her liking she ate it all 
up she was very tired so looked about for a 
place in which to rest she saw three chairs stand- 
ipg near the table she sat down in the largest 
one but it wais too hard to be comfortable she sat 


down in the second chair but that was too soft she 
then sat down in the third chair it was very com- 
fortable biit she was so heavy that she broke it all to 
pieces she was sorry to think that she had broken the 
chair she went upstairs and there she found three 
beds standing side by side she lay down on the largest 
bed but it was so hard that she did not like it she lay 
down on the next largest bed but it was too soft to 
satisfy her she lay down on the smallest bed and that 
was so comfortable that she went to sleep let us leave 
her there fast asleep for a time while she is dreaming 
we shall think of something else,* 


The. pictures of people whom we love are often 
framed and placed where we can enjoy them. 

The wise and interesting sayings of people whom 
we admire also are treasured. We frequently repeat 
them to others. When we say the exact words that 
others have said, we quote them, or give a quotation 
from them. 

Quote something which you have heard your little 
brother or sister say; your father or mother; some 
other grown person whom yqji know. Give a quota- 
tion from some great writer; from some President 
of the United States. 

Write the chosen quotations upon the blackboard. 

• Note to the Teacher. — Other familiar favorites should be treated 
like the above story, until the class has become proficient in sentence- 
making. Let original stories be brought to class, and copied upon the black- 
board for correction. 


Braw upon the blackboard a picture of a child in 
a frame ; write below the picture, inside the frame, a 
sentence that the child might have said. 

Erase all of the frame except the parts next to 
the child's words. What is left will look like this: 
j The child said, "I go to 
school." The marks that 
frame the child's words 
are called QUOTATION 
MARKS, because they are 
used to frame a quotation, 
or the exact words of 
the child. 

Make other frames con- 
taining quotations. Then 
write a conversation be- 
tween two boys who are going to play ball ; use quo- 
tation marks very carefully. Write a conversation 
between two dolls ; between a dog and a kitten, a mouse 
and a cat, a mother-bird and her greedy baby. Be 
sure to put the last pair of quotation marks after 
the period, question mark, or exclamation mark. 
Write, Jack said, "I'll come." Do not write, Jack 
said, *'I'll come". 

Let us go on with our story of Goldielocks. Place 
quotation marks wherever they should be used in the 
following story: 


While Goldielocks was sleeping sweetly in the 
little house in the woods, its owners returned. She 


would not have slept so peacefully, had she known 
that the house belonged to three bears that had gone 
out for a brisk walk in the woods before breakfast. 
Their exercise had given them such good appetites, 
that they went at once to the table to eat their soup. 
Papa Bear said, WHO'S BEEN TASTING OF 
MY SOUP? Mamma Bear said, WHO'S BEEN 

TASTING OF MY SOUP ? Baby Bear said, Some- 
body has tasted of my soup, and has eaten it all up ! 

Then Papa Bear looked at his big chair and 
CHAIR? Mamma Bear also growled, WHO'S 
cried, Some one has been sitting in my chair, and has 
broken it all to pieces I 

The Three Bears decided to look around to see if 
they could find the culprit who had done so much mis- 
chief. They went upstairs to their bedroom. 


Papa Bear again growled, WHO'S BEEN 
LYING ON MY BED ? Mamma Bear asked angrilv, 
squealed, Who 's been lying on my bed ? Oh, here she 
is, fast asleep ! Papa Bear growled, LET US EAT 
HER ! And Mamma Bear growled, LET US EAT 
HER! But Baby Bear said. Nothing ever was 
sweeter ! Let us kiss her and send her home. 

Just then Goldielocks awakened. She was so 
frightened at the sight of the THREE BEARS, that 
she jumped out of the window and ran home as fast 
as she could go. She thought, I Ve learned a lesson. 


Large frames are sometimes used to enclose words 
inserted or thrown into sentences ; for example, 

Two pints (pts.) make one quart (qt.). 

Some valleys are wide and open (see figure 14), 
while others are narrow and deep (see figure 15). 

The marks ( ) enclosing words thrown into sen- 
tences (or inserted in them) are called PAREN- 
THESES or marks of parenthesis. 

Find parentheses in your geographies; in your 
arithmetics ; in other books. 

Write sentences containing parentheses. 

Game 1 

Let two children have a conversation, and two 
others ^'frame'' their sentences on the blackboard. 
See which one makes fewest mistakes. 


Game 2 

Read the ^^ Story of Pinocchio, or the Adventures 
of a Marionette ; ' '* act out parts of the story ; write 
on the blackboard various conversations, with cor- 
rect quotation marks. 



When you take a long walk in the woods, you 
grow tired and like to sit down upon a stone or a log 
to rest. When you run uphill, you must stop fre- 
quently to get your breath. When you talk, you must 
pause often to take a breath. 

In books, you find that a little mark is used fre- 
quently to help you find a place to pause, before you 
reach the end of your journey in a long sentence. In 
the sentences of this chapter, where have you paused? 
What little mark showed you where to pause ? It is 
called a COMMA (,), and it is found almost as often 
in sentences as logs and twigs are found on the ground 
in forests. Let us journey together and find out how 
commas are used. 

1. One use is to separate the name of a person 
from the other words in a sentence ; as, 

John, get the pony from the pasture. 

George, bring the saddle and bridle. 

Put on the saddle, John, while George puts on 
the bridle. 

•Written by Collodi; published by J. B. Lippincott Company. 


Be quick, John. 

Boys, take turns in riding on the pony. 

In the last sentence, notice the different meaning 
the sentence would have if the comma were omitted. 
If you said, ^^Boys take turns in riding on the pony,'' 
you would siinply state a fact. 

Play a game in which you first place a comma in 
a sentence, and then omit it. See what happens to 
the meaning with each change that you make. Try 
such sentences as the following : 

Boys, take off hats when entering a church. 

Girls, keep hats on when entering a church. 

Gentlemen, always remain standing in the pres- 
ence of ladies. 

Boys and girls, give seats in street-cars to older 

Children, always help very old people. 

2. Another use is to separate a quotation from the 
rest of the sentence ; for example, 

John said, ^^The pony is ugly to-day.'' 
George replied, ' ' She is a stubborn little beast. ' ' 
*'She tried to kick me once," said John, ^^ while 
I was saddling her. ' ' 

^^She bit at me," said George, ^^as I put on 
her bridle." 

' ^ We need to watch her carefully, ' ' answered 

Write a similar story ; place commas and quota- 
tion marks correctly. 

3. The word Oh is usually separated from the 
rest of the sentence by a comma ; as, 


Oh, I am so happy ! My father has promised me 
a sled. 

Oh, look ! There goes the fire-engine ! 

Oh, Bob, let's go to the fire ! 

"Write sentences containing the word ^^Oh/' 

4. The words Yes and No when part of an answer 
are separated from the rest of the sentence by 
commas ; as, 

^^Do yon like to ride?'' asked George. 

^ ^ Yes, I do, " -replied John. 

*^Do yon like riding in an automobile as much as 
riding horse-back?" asked George. 

^*No, I do not," answered John. 

**Will you go riding with me to-morrow?" 
asked George. 

*^No, I thank you," replied John, **for I have 
some work that I must do. " 

Write similar sentences; allow the class to put 
in the correct marks. 

5. Commas are placed between names and dates 
in addresses ; as, 

Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. 

He sailed from Palos, Spain. 

He landed on San Salvador, October 12, 1492. 

Our first Independence Day was July 4, 1776. 

George Washington was born in Westmoreland 
County, Virginia, February 22, 1732. 

Abraham Lincoln was bom in Hardin County, 
Kentucky, February 12, 1809. 

Write other similar sentences containing dates 
and names of places. 



14 Beacon Street, 
Boston, Mass., 
Jan. 1, 1920. 
My dear George, 

Your friend, 

Albert Wilson. 

9999 Euclid Ave., 
Cleveland, Ohio, 
June 6, 1920. 
My dear Ellen, 

Your loving friend, 

Helen Harwood. 

Write a letter to a friend. 

6. Words used in a sentence to explain another 
word are separated from the rest of the sentence by 
commas, as in the following story : 

Mary, our baby, is one year old. 

Maggie, her nurse, takes her out in her baby- 

Rover, our Newfoundland dog, loves her so much 
that he goes wherever the baby goes. 

He stays with her when Maggie goes to speak to 
Mr. Jones, the postman. 

*NoTE. — In the headings of letters, commas and periods are now fre- 
quently omitted at the ends of the lines. In the above forms, the commas 
might be omitted after Street, M^ass., Ave., and Ohio, and the periods 
after 1920. 


He lies on the ground beside her, and growls when 
Jack, the grocer's boy, comes near her carriage. 

He will allow no one to harm her, our precious 

Write sentences similar to those above; use 
commas to separate the explanatory words from the 
other words. 

7. The comma is used frequently in still an- 
other way. 

A little child would say, **Jack and Mary and 
Robert and Julia and Herbert and Flora went to the 
country. '^ HoW could the above sentence be short- 
ened so that it would be easier to say and more pleas- 
ant to hear ? 

When the numerous ands are omitted, commas 
must be used between the names. The sentence should 
be written : ^* Jack, Mary, Robert, Julia, Herbert, and 
Flora went to the country. ' ' 

A number of words used together as in the above 
sentence form a series. Name the words in the fol- 
lowing sentences that form a series : 

We bought eggs, butter, cheese, and meat at 
the market. 

Apples, oranges, grapes, peaches, pears, and 
plums are fruits. 

We gathered berries, nuts, ferns, flowers, and 
leaves in the woods. 

Write several series. Invent a game for the class 
to play. See how many rows in the class can write a 
series without a mistake. 



The Colon 

When a series follows introductory words, it is 
written in a different way ; for example, 

The principal Allied Powers were the following 
countries: England, France, Italy, Belgium, Japan, 
and the United States. 

Their foes were: Germany, Austria, Turkey, 
and Bulgaria. 

This mark ( :) is called a COLON. It consists of 
one period placed above another. 

Find colons in this book ; in other books. Write 
sentences containing colons. 

The Semicolon 

In very long sentences, another kind of mark is 
often used to separate the principal parts. These 
different parts frequently contain commas. Notice 
the following sentences carefully : 

Boys fight one another; men have had frequent 
wars ; many people hope now that the world will find 
a better way to settle disputes than by fighting. 

The Big Trees of California are the most wonder- 
ful trees in the world, and are thought to be at least 
eight thousand years old; but there are selfish, 
thoughtless men who have cut down many of them 
in a few hours, just to make a few dollars, destroying 
what never can be replaced. 

This mark ( ;) is called a SEMICOLON. It con- 
sists of a comma placed beneath a period. A longer 


pause is made at a sanicolon than at a comma ; but 
not a full stop, as at a period. 

Find semicolons in this book; in other books. 
Write sent«ices containing semicolons. 


The Apostbophe 

In olden times, people said many things differ- 
ently from the way in which they say them now. They 
formerly said, "John his knife," "Walter his cap," 
"Bohin Hood his bow and arrow." 

Such expressions were finally shortened to John's 
knife, Walter's cap, Robin Hood's bow and arrow. 
A little mark was used to indicate letters omitted. 

This mark (') is called an APOSTROPHE. 
When it is used to show that a person or thing owns 
or possesses something, it is called the ownership 
mark or the mark of possession. It looks like a 
comma, but it is hung high like a hook, while a comma 
hangs below the line. 

Put apostrophes where they should be placed in 
the following sentences : 


John hung Walters cap on Roberts hook. 

Mary washed her dolls face and then laid the doll 
down on the babvs bed. 

A womans warm hands rubbed the poor childs 
frosted feel 

Invent an apostrophe game for the class to play. 

The apostrophe is used in still another way. Tell 
how it is used in the following sentences : 

I'm going skating on the pond after school. 

I Ve new skates. 

I '11 watch for thin ice. 

I'd dislike to fall into the pond. Wouldn't you? 

What do Fm, Vve, Fll, I'd, and wouldn't mean? 
The expressions I am, I have, I shall, I will, I should, 
Iwould, would not, and many similar expressions are 
used so frequently that they have been shortened to 
save time in speaking and writing. 

When things shrink in size, they are said to 
contract; these shortened expressions, such as I'm, 
I've, I'll, I'd, and wouldn't, are called contractions. 

Tell what the following contractions mean: 










































whene 'er 



where 'er 



ho we 'er 





Be very careful in the use of it^s, who^s, we^ll, 
we're, you're, and they're. Omit the apostrophe in 
each, and notice how entirely different three of the 
words become. To what word-families do its, whose, 
well, were, your, their, and there belong? See how 
accurate you must be. Invent a game that will help 
you to remember. 

Never use the word ain't, ioT isn't; aren't, for am 
not. Never say hain't. 


There are other words in common use which also 
have been shortened. Some of the most common are : 
Mr. for Mister. 
Mrs. for Mistress. 
Dr. for Doctor. 
Prof, for Professor. 
Lieut, for Lieutenant. 
Capt. for Captain. 
Col. for Colonel. 
Gen. for General. 
Hon. meaning Honorable. 


Rev. used with the name of a minister. 

Sr. meaning senior. 

Jr. meaning junior. 

Supt. for Superintendent. 

Sec. or SecY for Secretary. 

Treas. for Treasurer. 

St. for street or saint. 

Ave. for avenue. 

Co. for county or company. 

A.M. meaning before noon. 

P.M. meaning afternoon. 

B.C. meaning Before Christ. 

A.D. meaning After Christ. 

P. O. meaning Post-Office. 

N. B. meaning Take Notice. 

Do you think of other shortened words similar 
to those above ? 

Such shortened words are called ABBREVIA- 
TIONS, from a Latin word **brevis/' meaning 
^ * short. ' ^ They are always followed by periods. Most 
of them are incorrect unless tised with a name, 
as in the following examples : 

Mr. Edison Howard Haines, Jr. 

Dr. Johnson Pennsylvania Ave. 

Col. Roosevelt Spruce St. 

Gen. Pershing Hamilton Co., Ohio 

Rev. Thomas Jordan H. A. Davis & Co. 

Hon. Wm. Taft H. H. Blair, Treas. 


9 A.M. 



6 P.M. 



55 B.C. 



3920 A.D. 




Find out the exact meaning of A.D., A.M., and 
P.M. ; of P.S., O.K., No., etc., i.e., viz. 

Never write ^^Rev. Wilson;'' always use the min- 
ister's name or initials; as, **Rev. Samuel Wilson," 
or ^^Eev.S.L. Wilson." 

Never write, **The Dr. came to see me." Write, 
^'Dr. Hall came to see me;" or **The doctor came 
to see me." 

Never write, **Our St. is long;" **Our Ave. is 
wide. ' ' How should they be written ? Why ? 

The word **Miss," used with the names of girls 
or unmarried women, is not an abbreviation. Do not 
place a period after it. Write, **Miss Sheldon," not 
**Miss. Sheldon." 

Think of places with names containing the abbre- 
viation St., meaning Saint. Learn the abbreviations 
of the names of the different states in the United 
States. Why are those names abbreviated ? 


The Hyphen 

Two single words are frequently put together to 
form one word; for example, doll-house, window- 


shade, wall-paper, blotting-paper, waste-basket, 
telephone-stand, picture-frame, apple-blossom. 

The first word generally is used to describe the 
second, to which it is joined by a little mark called a 
HYPHEN (-). Two words joined in this way form 
a compound word. Do you think of other com- 
pound words ? 

More than two words may be joined to form a 
compound- word ; for example, father-in-law, mother- 
in-law, maid-of -all-work, jack-in-a-box, jack-in-the- 
pulpit, jack-of -all-trades. Do you think of others? 
Find C/ompound words in your story-books. Write 
several sentences containing compound words. 

Play a game. Let a child tell the class the first 
half of a compound word that he has thought of. Let 
him have for his partner a child who guesses the sec- 
ond half of the word. Let a ruler represent the 
hyphen. See whether the girls or the boys think of 
the greater number of compound words. 

The following words formerly were compound 
words, but owing to common usage are now written 
without a hyphen : 

railroad bricklayer blackboard 

steamship shoeinaker schoolroom 

steamboat kingbird schoolmate 

carfare bluebird newspaper 

Do you think of other similar words, for- 
merly written with a hyphen and now written with- 
out one ? 


The hyphen is used in another way. 

When a word containing more than one syllable 
cannot all be written on one line, a part of it is written 
or printed on the line below. A hyphen is placed 
where the word was broken off. Find words in this 
book divided in this way ; in other books. 

Never divide a word of one syllable ; such words 
must be written all on one line. Do you ever make 
that mistake ? 

The Dash 

Another mark, occasionally used, looks like a long 
hyphen. It is called a DASH ( — ) and is used in 
several ways : 

1. When part of a sentence explains another part ; 
for example, 

I am glad — I cannot tell you how glad I am. 
It was a lovely place — the very loveliest place the 
child had ever seen. 

2. When there is a sudden change of thought; 
for example, 

You say that Kate did it — ^the very idea ! 
Our children are never in mischief — when 
they're asleep I 

3. When words or letters are omitted; for 

Mrs. B told the story to Mrs. C . 

Don't give baby any c — e or o — ^y. 




Put the proper marks in the sentences of the fol- 
lowing story : 

THE children's PETS 

Eva Elizabeth Anne and Ben Baldwin lived in a 
suburb of Cincinnati Ohio they had many pets I will 
tell you some of the things that they did 

The pets were George a gentle horse Sukey 
a Jersey cow Bess a Shetland pony Betsey a collie 
Spot a coach dog Spry a bright homely little Skye 
terrier Muff y a tortoise shell kitten Snowflake a white 
rabbit with pink eyes Beauty a sweet canary Speckle 
and Cackle two bantam hens 

George and Snowflake were not very interesting 

Sukey was so gentle that she let little Anne milk 
her Elizabeth put her arms around Sukeys neck one 
day and the cow stepped on Elizabeths foot 

One day Sukey got so twisted up in her rope that 
she broke her tail the tail had to be amputated the 
poor cow suffered very much Anne and Ben spent 
many hours brushing away flies that annoyed her 

Speckle and Cackle being bantam hens laid very 
small eggs which Anne liked to eat both hens crowed 
like young roosters what do you think happened one 
day Cackle crowed so hard that she fell off the fence 
and hurt herself so seriously that she had to be killed 
poor foolish little hen 

Spot the coach dog was so very stupid that all he 
ever did was to follow the carriage and get lost again 


and again one day he was lost and never returned 

Betsey the collie loved the children dearly espe- 
ciallv Anne when she was a babv her mother would 
put her on a shawl out in the yard and say Betsey 
watch the baby she knew that no harm would come 
to Anne if she left her with Betsey for an hour or two 

Betsey had thirteen baby puppies that were born 
imder the house near the kitchen door she always 
growled when strangers touched her babies but she 
let the Baldwin children play with them as much 
as they liked 

One day a neighbors child snatched up a puppy 
and squeezed it Betsey snapped at the child though 
she didnt hurt him his father cruel man brought some 
poisoned meat to Betsey she died in dreadful agony 
leaving the poor little puppies motherless the children 
were heart broken 

Muffy the tortoise shell kitten liked Spry the 
Skye terrier so much that she couldnt bear to have 
him out of her sight she used to eat out of his saucer 
she would take bits of meat away from him but he 
never even growled at her 

She used to follow him about and play with the 
tassel at the end of his tail she would play also with 
his long silky ears sometimes her claws caught in the 
hair and she would hang about his neck and he would 
look greatly bored but he never bit her he would just 
lie down and seem to say oh if you wouldnt bother 
me so Id like you better 

Spry loved Mrs Baldwin better than any one else 
in the world when a new baby Eleanor was born he 


was so jealous that Mrs Baldwin dared not leave the 
baby alone in the room with him for fear he would do 
her harm 

When siumner came the family moved to another 
house then went North for a vacation before they 
moved they took Spry to some cousins who lived five 
miles away 

Spry had always liked those cousins but that sum- 
mer he wouldnt have anything to do with them he 
was so homesick that he walked all the way home 
when he found the house closed he went to a stable 
where an old colored man lived with his little 
dog Belle 

Spry wouldnt eat and he didnt sleep very much he 
just lay still and acted as though he didnt care for 
anything and hadnt a friend in the world 

Belle was sick with the mange and Spry took the 
disease too Belle recovered but Spry died 

The colored man told Mrs Baldwin when she re- 
turned that he thought Spry died of a broken heart 
he said Missus 'p eared like dat dog didnt want to get 
well 'peared like bed lost all his folks and his home 
and didnt want to live any longer 

The Baldwins mourned for him very deeply 

Beauty the canary was a great pet he was very 
tame when the children would put their fingers into 
his cage he would hop on them he would eat anything 
they held between their lips close to his cage some- 
times they would say kiss me Beauty if they didnt 
have anything for him in their mouths he would give 
their lips a spiteful tweak instead of a kiss 


They used to let him fly out of his cage round the 
room after they had carefully shut doors and windows 
he would fly to the mirror talk to the bird he saw in 
the glass fight with it and bring it food then he would 
pull pins out of the pincushion and eat beads from 
the top of the cushion 

One night Eva who usually took excellent care of 
Beauty forgot to bring him into the house during the 

night an owl alighted on his cage and tried to catch 
him he flew about the cage so rapidly that the naughty 
owl only pulled out some feathers Beauty lived to a 
good old age 

Bess the pony was the dearest pet of all she be- 
longed to Ben who rode on her when he was only four 
years old 

Bess loved sugar and fruit she would walk in at 
the front door go through the hall to the doors leading 
to the dining room and pantry and neigh imtil some 


one would give her a lump of sugar she couldn^t turn 
around in that part of the hall so she would have to 
walk through the dining room into the kitchen and 
out the back door if she saw or smelled apples in the 
kitchen she would try to get them 

In the pasture grew a peach tree she ate the 
peaches that fell on the ground one day a man climbed 
the tree to steal the delicious fruit Bess saw what he 
was doing and ran to the tree as fast as he shook the 
peaches down she ate them up and spit out the stones 
he didnt get a single peach arent you glad 

Bess was sometimes naughty she used to run 
under the low branches of trees and brush the children 
off her back when she didnt wish them to ride her 
one day she dragged Elizabeth on the ground for a 
long distance over sticks and stones and the dusty 
road Elizabeth had one foot in a stirrup and couldnt 
get it out till some one caught the naughty pony 

Bess used to puff herself out when the side-saddle 
was being put on then she would draw in her breath 
after one of the girls had mounted her and over the 
child would go sometimes she would fall off 

One day Eva asked Elizabeth to take a note to a 
little friends house it was a hot day so Elizabeth 
decided to ride the pony Bess liked the cool pasture 
better than the hot dusty road so she puffed herself 
out put back her ears and behaved very badly they 
finally arrived at the girls home where Elizabeth de- 
livered the note then Bess made up her mind she 
wouldnt go home for near the girl there lived a boy 
whom Bess liked he gave her sugar and apples when 
she went to his house with Ben Elizabeth didnt wish 


to call on Harry but Bess did so she turtied round and 
round in a circle till Elizabeth was so dizzy she fell off 
she was mortified because passersby laughed at her 

The only way she could get the obstinate pony 
home was to walk backward in the middle of the road 
pulling her by the bridle Elizabeth was so hot tired 
dustv and cross when she returned that she wished 
she had walked both ways on the shady sidewalks 

Write stories about your pets. Be very careful to 
punctuate the sentences correctly. 



X>o let me take you by the hand 
And lead vou into Sentence-Land,— 
A land with such strange sights to see 
That you will journey joyfully. 

At every entering road there '11 be 

A guard, a CAPITAL, and he 

Will take you down each Sentence-Street. 

You'll pause when you a COMMA (,) meet. 

And COLON (:), SEMICOLON (;), too. 
PARENTHESES ( ) come into view ; 
The twins, ^^ QUOTATION MARKS,'' appear, 
To frame the words you'll speak and hear. 

Strange rows of hooks you 11 see on high — 
APOSTROPHES ('). On them you'll spy 
People's possessions hanging, too, — 
Miss them you can't, whate'er you do. 



Next HYPHEN (-) comes to join the fun; 
Takes dog and cart and makes them one. 
Into a dog-cart then you hop ; 
You DASH ( — ), then come to sudden stop. 

For PERIOD (.) roimd blockades the way. 
' ' Forget me not, ' ' you hear him say ; 
* ' Be sure you stop when me you meet. ' ' 
Next EXCLAMATION MARK ( !) you greet. 

' ' Pray, who are you % I long to know, ^ ^ 

You ask hiim, and he answers, ' * Ho ! 

Don't question me ! My brother true. 

Good QUESTION MARK ( ?), will answer you. 

^^Who are you all?'' you, wondering, ask. 
**We have a very arduous task; 
To Sentence-Land the young we guide, — 
To magic Book-Land, Land of Pride. 

^^ We're PUNCTUATION MARKS, and we, 
The BUSY ELEVEN, toil constantly 
Up Learning's road; where, mountain-high, 
Wisdom's abode towers toward the sky." 

Commit the above stanzas to memory.